scale of 4 miles to 1 inch by cartographical data drawn from the `Maps of India and Adjacent Countries' published by the Survey of India on the same scale. The methods followed in the plane table work along our routes were the same as adopted during my travels in Chinese Turkestan.4 The extent of the survey work done on the journeys on Persian ground, of which the first took us from the extreme south-east of Persian Makran through Balûchistan to Kerman, and the second thence south to Minab at the mouth of the Persian Gulf and along its forbidding coast as far as Bushire, may be judged from the aggregate marching distances amounting to more than 2,400 miles. Muhammad Ayûb Khan's help proved equally valuable for the numerous plans of sites and ruins which had to be prepared.
On the first of those journeys and on the tours in the Panjab which preceded it, I enjoyed the advantage of a competent scholarly assistant in the person of Dr. C. L. Fâbri, a zealous young archaeologist from the Kern Institute of Leiden University. Prepared by prolonged study of Indian antiquities under that distinguished Indologist, Professor J. Ph. Vogel of Leiden University, and gifted with a keen eye and skilful hand, Dr. Fâbri rendered very useful help in supervising excavations, examining whatever objects they brought to light, and keeping notes of all that presented special interest. After our return from that journey to London he was engaged for five months at the British Museum on the arrangement of the collection and the careful site-marking of all the objects comprised in it, including thousands of ceramic remains, before he returned to his post at Leiden. It is earnestly to be wished in the interest of research that Dr. Fâbri may be offered before long an opportunity of sharing in the direction of systematic excavations at some of the great prehistoric sites of north-western India, a task for which he is exceptionally qualified.
It has been my aim in this volume to offer a comprehensive account both of the work in the field and of the antiquities recovered in the course of it. As my time has since been occupied on two fresh expeditions I should not have been able to prepare this account but for the devoted expert assistance received from my old artist friend Mr. F. H. Andrews, in the study and description of the antiquities temporarily deposited at the British Museum. Those who have had occasion to consult his descriptive Lists of Antiques in the volumes of Ancient Khotan, Serindia, and Innermost Asia will be able to assess the great value of the pains-
4 Regarding these methods cf. my Memoir on pure Arabic names the addition of diacritical marks, Maps of Chinese Turkistàn and Kansu (Records of in accordance with the system of transcription the Survey of India, vol. xvii, 1923), pp. 3 seqq. adopted by the International Congress of Oriental-The spelling of local names generally conforms to ists, has, however, appeared advisable.
the system followed in those maps. In the case of