Sec. ii] BY THE LOWER HAUL ROD 139
colours as found on the mounds passed on the journey to Rûdbâr. But since the only indication of earlier occupation consisted of one or two flint flakes and the absence of glazed ware, it did not appear justifiable to spare time for closer investigation.
The site known as Tump-i-surkh ( Fig. 43) consists of two mounds, a larger one to the north, and a smaller one at a distance of some 700 yards to the south. The name of `Red Mound' applies properly only to the northern mound, which, as the sketch plan ( Plan 12) shows, measures close on 300 yards from east to west and about 200 yards across where widest. The debris-strewn area around is much greater. The mound derives its name from the abundance of plain pottery with which it is strewn, mostly of red or pink body, but often showing slips of purple, cream, or greenish-grey colours. As search on the surface did not yield any painted fragments, such as could be picked up on the smaller mound to the south, I preferred to confine our short trial excavation on April 1st to the latter.
This mound, measuring about 60 yards in diameter and 15 feet in height, differs strikingly from the larger one by the whitish colour of its surface. A trench cut down its south side for a distance of 60 feet and to a level of 3 feet above the ground exposed throughout soft clay full of ashes, charred remains and animal bones. Fragments of painted pottery, found from -I- 13 feet level downwards, were few; but their black zigzag patterns (Sur. 2, 26; Pl. Xx) agreed closely with those found on chalcolithic pottery from Châh Husain'. Flint blades and borers turned up in different layers, and the find of a flint core shows that they are likely to have been worked on the spot. Pieces of coarse hand-made ware were numerous and included a nearly complete small pot, Sur. 27. Among fragments of small vessels worked in stone there is one made of the same white fine-grained sandstone as found at Chah Sardû and Chah Husain'. Fragments of alabaster and a couple of hones may also find mention. The finds of metal objects include a bronze javelin-head, Sur. 57 (Pl. XVIII ), a bronze needle and bronze pins, Sur. 53, 54 (Pl. x). It deserves to be noted that neither on the surface nor in the excavated layers of this mound was there found any of the comparatively fine red pottery so plentiful on the larger mound. As the debris of the smaller mound certainly accumulated in chalcolithic times, that red ware may be assumed to be later.
The specimens of pottery brought from the site of Qalât-i-ganj far away to the south-west closely agreed in their type with this last-named ware. They comprised also ribbed pieces, and thus pointed to occupation in historical times. It appeared, therefore, preferable to continue the move up the Hal'1 Rûd with a view to reaching the administrative centre of Rûdbâr at the oasis of Kahnti, where there was hope of securing much-needed fresh supplies. Our