Some of NoRIN's graves and `tash-öis' may have some connection with this ancient kingdom.
This fortification ought to be seen in connection with those at the Shindi river and the fortress at P'o-ch'eng-tze in Quruq-tagh.
B. Burial place.
Between the fortress and the small
brook there is a group of eight closely
placed graves built of stone slabs placed in A —
rectangles. Seven of them were destroyed by man, the one which seemed to be untouched I excavated. Plan and section are shown on Fig. 4o. The rectangle is lined with slabs put edgewise. It measures 2.3 x 1.2 m., and is about 35 cm. higher than the ground. Level with the ground there was a layer of flat slabs. Nearly in the centre and I m. from the top a human skull was found, and a little higher up and to the side was a
child's skull. Near the adult skull there Fig. 4o. Grave near the ruined fortress at Söget-
was some green colour from some trifling bulaq. Plan and section.
much decayed bronze plate. As no other
bones or funeral deposit were met with it is most likely that this tomb, too, had been subject to a previous search.
The fragmentary skulls have been handed over to Prof. BACKMAN.
4. GRAVE AT SHOR-TSAGHAN.
When making his topographical and geological surveys of western Quruq-tagh, NORIN discovered a great many ancient tombs and remains of small stone structures, which have been marked on his maps. The Turki name for all the different kinds of these remains built of stones is Tash-öi, `stone house', or Degipter-tash-öi, `stone huts of the spirits' (Norin p. 176). In some cases these structures served as dwellings and sheep enclosures, in other cases they were small fortifications or watch-stations. HUNTINGTON mentions them as "little stone shepherd's huts".
Along the northern foot of Khara-teken-ola, south of the lake Baghrash-köl, both such structures and ancient graves are very common. NoRIN opened a grave in the region of Shor-tsaghan near his camp 201. It consisted of a mound of earth and stones in which he found a chamber measuring 2 x I m., walled with rough stones and about I m. deep, which was filled with fine sand and stones. At the bottom rested the