K. 13443 : 4. Copper coin, Sino-Kharoshthi, with K. 13443 : 6. Flat bronze button with incised orna-
unclear Chinese legend on one side, ment on one side. Diam. 18 mm. Pl.
the front part of a horse standing to right and 15 : 14.
part of legend on the other side. Diam. about 19 K. 13443 : 7. Bronze mounting for strap end. One
mm. Pl. 15 : 6. side is ornamented in relief : a floral
K. 13443 : 5. Copper coin, probably Sino-Kharosh- design framed by a single row of dots between thi, with very unclear legend. Diam. raised borders. The plain rear side is fastened
16 mm: with two rivets. 20X14X5 mm. PI. 15 : 5.
6. RUIN AT QUMUSH.
When travelling along the main road from Turfan to Qara-shahr in February 1934, one night was spent in the then destroyed and deserted village of Qumush. On the south-eastern side of the small village I discovered a rhomboid enclosure, an earthen rampart, which must be the remains of a small fortification or military camp. It measured about 85 m. square and had gates in three of the sides, see plan Fig. 43. Near to the west of it there is a 4 m. high mound, at the top of which one could see metre thick layers of straw, charcoal, bones, fabrics and similar refuse laying in great disorder. Without digging — and I had no opportunity for this whatsoever — it was impossible to ascertain if the mound contained any structural remains, or if it was just a huge rubbish-heap.
This small ruin has escaped the attention of earlier travellers. It might be identified with the fortress Kümüsh-aqma, which in a note of Hsi-yü-wen-chien-lu 1777 is said to be situated 52o li north-east of Qara-shahr.
7. MONOLITHS AT CH'AI-O-P'U.
About 3 km. tho the east of the village Ch'ai-o-p'u in T'ien-shan and about I km. to the north of the eastern end of the lake nearest to this village I discovered a fallen "baba" stone with a very rude face and an engraved line forming a girdle, Pl. IX a. Total length of the stone 2.2 m. The girdle is 1.2 m. from the top. In the neighbourhood there is an earthen mound from a k a r e z or subsoil irrigation canal.
About 10o m. south of the main road Turfan—Urumchi there is an erect stone, 2 m. high, and with an engraved belt or girdle 1.05 m. from the top, just as was the case with the nearby baba stone. It was impossible to discern traces of any face though there has probably once been one.
To the north of the road and in the vicinity of the telegraph line I found another standing, thin stone, 1.65 m. high, but I could discover no engravings on it. Between the latter and the road there is still another small erect stone. There are also probably some stone graves here.
Afterwards I have learnt that this site is mentioned by HUNTINGTON (p. 300) : "Two monoliths about seven feet high, stand near the shore. Near them there are a number of artificial mounds of various sizes, and several lines composed of