kiang.1 Under the political conditions then prevailing in China it was not easy to decide in advance upon a definite route. One might suddenly hear that a road was closed by robber-bands or that civil war was raging in the tract to which one had meant to go. Or another region might be visited by famine. It was thus necessary as a rule to adapt oneself to prevailing circumstances. At all events the Edsen-gol region would certainly provide a field of work for at least a couple of the expedition's members, as would also the Nan-shan alps. After having led the whole body to the Edsen-gol, BERGMAN planned to turn to the Ordos region for archaeological work. It was highly probable that the expedition in Suchow would meet NORIN and AMBOLT.
Where circumstance permitted, the Gobi-group was to travel in separate columns, in order to chart and geologically investigate as wide an area as possible.
Our young scientists considered that the vicinity of Beli-miao was peculiar and interesting in all respects, and none of them regretted that we were held up day after day in expectation of the arrival of HASLUND, JOHANSEN and JOEL ERIKSSON. They all had plenty of work in the surroundings as long as daylight lasted; and afterwards they sat around the lamps in the tents and worked at their maps or expanded their notes.
Caravan-roads from every quarter converge at this great temple. During the evenings and at night merchant-caravans of several hundred camels passed by. One heard the dull clang of their bells and got an impression of a fairly lively traffic.
The tract in the vicinity of the temple is holy. For this reason the handsome and strongly built argali-sheep that browsed in the hills were regarded as protected game, and the same applied to the big herds of steppe-antelopes. Mountain-partridges and pigeons were shot by our hunters for the sake of the kitchen. Magpies, ravens, eagles and vultures were common sights.
On the evening of November 8th HASLUND, FxuS-JoHANSEN and JOEL ERIKSSON arrived in our new Ford and ERIBSSON's own car. With them were also TSERAT and our Chinese chauffeur. The cars were overloaded with benzine-tins, all sorts of baggage and sleeping gear. HASLUND reported that it had taken him two days to drive from Tientsin to Kalgan, where he had stayed for a couple of days. From there to Khadain-sume it had taken him one day and thence a further day to our camp. Only in the Nan-k'ou pass had the road been bad. He had to pay 15o Mexican dollars in customs dues.
The instruments and other articles that HASLUND had brought with him from Sweden were handed over to the appropriate members of the Gobi-group, which was now fully equipped and could start at any moment.
1 That Mongolia was not specially mentioned was due to the fact that in 1929 the Chinese had drawn new frontiers for the northern provinces, so that the whole of Inner Mongolia had been swallowed up by the provinces of Chakhar, Sui-yüan and Ning-hsia. F. B.