CHIN fled to Chuguchaq, tried to enlist followers, and thought of attempting to retake Urumchi and regain power; but finally he crossed the frontier to Russian territory and betook himself to China proper. Later, he was sentenced by the Nanking Government to four years' imprisonment, a rather mild punishment — if it was ever put into execution.
CHIN had imported arms from abroad. . This was said to have taken place without the knowledge of his own foreign commissary. On October ist, 1931, he signed a
commercial agreement with the Soviet — without a report to the Central Government in Nanking. Not until June 1933 was this secret agreement discovered by the commissioner for pacification sent out by the Nanking Government, General HUANG MU-SUNG. It was drawn up in such a way as to give the Soviet the whole control over the commercial life of Sinkiang.
After CHIN'S overthrow there was a period of calm. The Turkis, however, demanded one of the two highest posts in the government. This the Chinese were
unwilling to allow, and the disappointed Turkis began once more to arm. In May
1933 their spokesmen had again betaken themselves to Kansu, where they appealed to MA CHUNG-YIN for help for the second time. The latter acceded to their request,
left the entire part of Kansu that he had been administering in the hands of his relation MA PU-FANG, and set off with his troops to march through the desert towards Hami.
MA CHUNG-YIN was the most dangerous and the strongest of all Urumchi's enemies. Without meeting any resistance he marched to Ku-ch'eng-tze, from where he exercised absolute sway over the surrounding country.
The government in Urumchi tried negotiations. MA was very willing to discuss matters. He was offered the whole of Eastern Turkistan and Hami into the bargain, the latter town being the eastern gate to the province. Meantime, his troops, several thousand strong, were pushing on towards Urumchi. The government troops with the White Russians met him half way between Urumchi and Kuch'eng-tze, but were defeated.
When the Japanese took Manchuria, a Chinese force of about 7,000 (some say 8,000-10,000) men fled to Soviet Russian territory, where they were disarmed and transported to Sinkiang. In the spring of 1933 they arrived in Urumchi.
It was parts of this army that the Urumchi government now sent to help the Russians against MA. The combined forces also succeeded in inflicting a decisive
defeat on him. But the Chinese did not make the most of this victory. Instead of pursuing MA'S routed army they gave him time to rally his forces. He took Turfan, from where he was able to command the roads leading to Eastern Turkistan and those leading to Urumchi. MA's former ally, KHOJA NIAZ HAJI, now in Qara-shahr, was defeated, and MA CHUNG-YIN was master of the whole country from Hami over Korla and Kucha to Kashgar.