Coins from desert sites near Khotan.
102 REMAINS OF THE KHOTAN OASIS [Chap. IV
pieces suchas were issued both under the Former and Later Han dynasties, takes up a large portion of the total with 113 specimens. It must, however, be noted that not less than 48 of these belong to a single hoard, the accidental discovery of which was bound to upset the usual proportion. To the Sung and Sui dynasties of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D. Mr. Allan ascribes three wu-shu pieces of a later type.
Of the cash' bearing the legend K`ai yiian tun", pao (Plate CXL, No. 39), which was first introduced by Kao tsu (A. D. 618-26) but was minted through the whole Tang period, there are only four specimens. On the other hand, the different issues showing the name of the Chien-yiian period (A. D. 758-9) are represented by not less than 134 pieces. The last rang nien-hao which appears among these coins is that of Ta-li (A. D. 766-79), being found on twenty-eight pieces (Plate CXL, No. 47). One coin each of the Chih-tao (A. D. 995-8), Tien-hsi (A. D. 1017-22), and Yüan-fêng (A. D. 1078-86) periods attest occupation of the Yôtkan Site during Sung times and continued relations with China also after the Muhammadan conquest. Of the latter there is evidence in three coins of Muhammad Arslân, belonging to the eleventh century.9
It is of some interest to compare the ratio in which the various issues are represented in this collection from Yôtkan with that shown by the aggregate of the coin sets which were brought to me at Khotan avowedly from old sites beyond the north-eastern edge of the oasis, such as the ` Tatis' of Ak-sipil and Hanguya. Here a total of 124 identified pieces comprises 1 coin of Wang Mang (A. D. 14-19 ; Plate CXL, No. 14), 9 Sino-Kharosthi coins, 8 wu-shu of Han times, 26 clipped wu-shu probably of the fifth century A. D., 17 Tang coins (mainly Chien-yiian), I7 Sung coins, and 46 coins of various early Muhammadan rulers. This analysis demonstrates a markedly greater proportion of late coins for these ' Tati ' sites. This is fully in keeping with what other antiquarian evidence indicates as to their time of abandonment. This fact, coupled with the close agreement shown between my present and former collections from Yôtkan, must add weight to the numismatic evidence which even such chance acquisitions afford for the history of the ancient capital.
SECTION III.—LIST OF ANTIQUES ACQUIRED FROM YÖTKAN
AND IN KHOTAN
ANTIQUES FROM YÔTKAN PURCHASED AT OR FROM SITE
Yo. r. Terra-cotta moulded figurine, upper part of woman ; hair cut straight across forehead, falls in two masses in front of shoulders and over shoulders behind ; small pigtail indicated by incising. Round neck is orn. collar, and ribbon with jewel ; breasts bare ; below, traces of appliqué garment. All below waist missing. Hole through mouth prob. shows that fig. was used as vessel, e. g. for unguents. Cf. Yo. oo6 r. Curiously rude and primitive-looking work. H. 4â". Pl. II.
Yo. 2. Terra-cotta moulded fig. of woman, squatting and holding child. Hair, gathered by bead circlet into big topknot, falls in pigtail which is looped up again with two bows to top of head. Short locks hang over cheeks. Eyes very prominent, pupils marked by holes ; other holes for nostrils and corners of mouth. Fig. wears fur-trimmed jacket with full pointed sleeves, and closely pleated underskirt. Infant wears cap and swaddling clothes; features punctured. Rough but vigorous work. H. 6". Pl. II.
Yo. ox. a. Pottery amphora. Broadly splayed base-ring II" high. Walls swell out sharply, making return towards neck at height of 5-i". Round angle of shoulder band of appliqué, oval jewels with beaded rims, between incised lines. From band of incised circles round base of neck incised lines with punctured dot borders descend to pairs of leaves, appliqué, set above incised band; fields occupied by leaves divided by double incised lines. At either side, stump of handle below which appliqué mask ; type of Yo. 001E. d, q. v. Remains of appliqué orn. on neck. Stumps of handles and fracture of neck have been cut down smooth so that vessel might continue in use. Wheel-made ; fine red clay. H. 8(". Pl. Iv.
Yo. ox. b. Terra-cotta monkey, crude naturalistic type, playing guitar. All below hips missing. Cf. Anc. Xholan, PL xLVI, Y. 009. i. H. r ".
Yo. o1. c. Terra-cotta fr. Five-leaved appliqué palmette. Length 2*"; gr. width c. 2". Pl. III.
° See Hoemle, Repot./ on C.-A. Anliquilies, i. P. 31.