in the Peninsula of Gujarat,' but which had fallen long before this time. Nor indeed does there appear to have been any very powerful dynasty in this region in the ninth century.2 Al Biruni, who in Indian matters knew what he was talking about a great deal better than other old Arabic writers, says nothing of the Balhara.3 He mentions a kingdom of Konkan with its capital at Tetlah [read ni nala].4
Among the other kings with whom the Balhara was often at war was one named the Juitz, who was noted for his cavalry, and had great riches, and camels and horses in great numbers. His states are said to form a tongue of land, i.e., I presume, to be on the sea coast. Yet Abu-Zaid says that Kanauj formed his empire, and to this M. Reinaud holds. But Masudi, who gives the same account of the Jurz (or Juzr as it is in his book as printed), makes him entirely distinct from the King of Kanauj, whom he calls the Bawuurah.5 Lassen and the editors of Masudi make this kingdom Gujarat, apparently from the slight resemblance of name. But it seems much more likely that it is the King Jor of Al Biruni, whom that writer places on the eastern coast of the Peninsula, either in the Tanjore country or •in Telinga, or extending over both. And from Hiwen Thsang also we hear of a kingdom called Jwri or Jurya, which lay some three hundred miles north of Dravida (the capital of which last was the present Konjeveram), and this may have been the same.'
There is then the kingdom of THAFAK, or THAFAN as Masudi has it, which was noted for its women, who were the whitest and most beautiful in India. The author of the Relations calls it beside the Jurz, but no
1 Called by Masudi Manekir, and identified by Lassen with the Minna-gara of Ptolemy.
2 See Lassen, iii, 533 seqq., and iv, 917 seqq. It is a curious illustration of the expanse of the Mahomedan power and consequent circulation of its agents that the name of this Indian prince, the Balhara, was applied to a village in the neighbourhood of Palermo, now the well-known Monreale, and from it again to a market in the city, Sûk-Balhara, now called Piazza Ballarô. Similar illustrations are found in the names of ManzilSindi, near Corleone ; Jibal-Sindi, near Girgenti ; and 'Ain-Sindi, in the suburbs of Palermo : all preserved by mediœval documents, and the last still surviving under the corrupted name of Fonte Dennisinni (Amari, St. dei Musulm. di Sicilia, i, 84; ii, 33, 34, 300).
3 Reinaud, Them. sur l'Inde in Mem. de l'Acad.
4 Reinaud in J. As. S., iv, tom. iv, p. 251.
Or Baurawa. Gildemeister says on this: "Paurav [in Nagari letters] esse puto, nam eo nomine Reges Kanyakubgenses gloriati sunt"; but gives no authority (p. 160). Masudi also speaks of a city Bawurah on one of the Panjab rivers, which is perhaps the Parvata of Hiwen Thsang
(Pr. d'Or, i, 371; Vie de H. T., p, 210). 5
6 Lassen, iv, 921 ; Prairies d'Or, i, 383, 384. In the last passage the French translator puts simply le Guzerat to represent Al-Jurz or Juzr, which is scarcely fair translating of so doubtful a point.
7 See Vie de H. T., pp. 189-90, 453; also Lassen, iii, 205, note. The Jurz of the Relations is evidently the Malik-al-Jizr of Edrisi, who puts him on what he calls t he Island of Madai on the way to China, but Edrisi's information about the South Eastern Indies, is a hopeless chaos (see i, 86, 98).