194 ADDITIONAL NOTES AND CORRECTIONS
The word pegola is applied to the same thing, viz. the mineral pitch of Persia, by Cesar Frederic in Ramusio (iii, 386 v., ed. of 1606).
Page 12. Risis autem comeclitur atque Sagina in aqua, tantummodo cotta. This is mistranslated ; it should be " Rice, however, and millet are eaten merely boiled in water." Saggina in Italy is the tall Asiatic millet, or sorghum, which in India we call jowar. The common dictionaries, with their usual imbecility, explain it, some as Turkey-wheat, some as buck-wheat, some as both
Page 13. Pliny's Pala and Ariena, the Jack. Ritter strangely assumes these to be the banana. " Humboldt," he says, " writes, that many Indians (of S. America) make their meal with a very little manioc and three bananas of the larger kind. Still less satisfied the Indian Brahmans, for one fruit of that kind was enough for four." And he refers to the above-cited passage in Pliny. Here the great geographer is all abroad. Four Brahmans would be as ill-pleased to dine off one plantain of the largest kind known in India, as four Germans off one potato. The only feature suggesting the plantain in Pliny's description is the greatness of the leaves ; but the form (three cubits by two) is quite different, and the great leaves were probably suggested by the great fruit ; also the production of dysentery by the fruit, which Pliny mentions, is entirely foreign to the plantain.
Page 18. The Rhinoceros in Western India. The following references will show that the rhinoceros was in Sindh and the Punjab, at least as late as Jordanus's time, and. in Peshawur province two hundred years later (Ibn Batuta, iii, 100 ; .Haber, pp. 292, 316 ; Journ. Asiat., ser. i, tom. ix, 201; Petis de la Croix, Timur, p. 158).
Page 24. Alleged Hindu Theism. On this subject Gasparo Balbi says, that we must not assume that idol stands for God with those heathen, perchè questa genie credono anch'essi che vi sia un Dio che regge e governa la machina di questo mondo ; ma adorano l'idolo come not adoriamo nelle imagini quello the si rappre-
sentano" (p. 68).
Page 30. Island of naked folk. The Carta Catalana exhibits this east of Java (which is there also called Jana), with the title " Insula nudorum in quti homines et mulieres portant unum folium ante et retro alium."