Sec. i] ANTIQUES FROM KHOTAN SITES 99
grotesque or comic attitudes (Yo. 0104-123, P1. II), are particularly frequent. On the other hand the appearance among the terra-cotta remains of several small Buddha reliefs and fragments (Yo. 0133-6, P1. II) is unusual. Whether the fragments of five votive plaques showing Buddha seated (Yo. 0137, Pl. III) were really brought from Yôtkan seems very doubtful in view of the softness of the material and the similarity of their design with those found at Mazar-tagh.3
Turning to miscellaneous acquisitions from Khotan I may note that those marked Kh. were obtained during my stay at Khotan, while the larger collection marked Badr. was made subsequently by Badruddin Khan and delivered to me in June, 1915, at Kashgar. In the case of the former it may be safely assumed that while most of the terra-cottas and other ceramic remains come from Yôtkan, the majority of the other objects, including all those in wood, plaster, and other materials liable to destruction by moisture, were picked up on ancient wind-eroded sites beyond the Khotan oasis, as alleged by the men who brought them, all known to me from my former visits as regular searchers of such ` Tati ' areas. Special mention may be made of the seals in metal, stone, and glass (Kh. 03, 04, 06-7, 019, 023-4, Pl. X) ; of the Buddha reliefs in soapstone (Kh. 020-I, Pl. X) ; and among the numerous beads of those in paste and agate (Kh. 028, 031, 074, Pl. X), which show a peculiar decorative technique. Some of the glass beads, too (Kh. 032, 034, & c.), present interest by their treatment. Mr. K. Moldovack, an Armenian gentleman settled at Khotan, kindly added to this miscellaneous collection some metal seals, coins, and a colossal stucco head of Buddha (Kh. 0267, Pl. VIII) probably brought from some site like that of Ak-terek.4 For this valuable gift I am glad to record here my grateful acknowledgement.
The large and varied collection of Khotan antiques brought by Badruddin Khan in 1915 comprises some series of which he had noted the alleged provenance. But since none of these show any distinctive character and since, having received them at Kashgar, I was unable to test otherwise the correctness of that record, a brief indication below of the different places of alleged origin will suffice.5 Among the numerous terra-cotta remains, the face-mask (Badr. 029, Pl. V), the relief with two well-modelled dancing figures (Badr. 033, Pl. II), and the pottery fragment with a fine Byzantine-looking vine-leaf scroll (Badr. 0303, Pl. V), deserve special mention ; similarly, among stuccoes, the relief fragments of heads (Badr. 0283-7, Pl. III, V, XI), and the Buddha plaques (Badr. 0288-98, 0381, Pl. III). The miscellaneous stucco relief fragments (Badr. 042-68, Pl. V, X), by their style and burnt condition closely recall my Ak-terek finds of 1906.5 Stucco representations of Gandharvis in different attitudes (Badr. 0340, 0348, & c., Pl. XI) are frequent. Small metal objects of interest are the bronze spoon and handle (Badr. 0112-14, Pl. X) ; the miniature bronze pick-axes (Badr. 0'15-16, Pl. X), perhaps for ceremonial use ; the bronze seals (Badr. 0192-5, Pl. X ; 0411) ; the miniature wine-jug (Badr. 0420) of classical shape. The carved wooden finial or halo (Badr. 0203), reported as from Toghrak-mazar, may well belong to the site of that name briefly described farther on. [For the important collection of antiques acquired from Badruddin Khan by Mr. C. Hardinge, late Vice-Consul at Kàshgar, and generously presented by him to the Museum of Central-Asian Antiquities, New Delhi, in 1923, see Appendix M.]
3 Cf. above, pp. 92, 95; M. Tagh. 07-10, 028.
Cf. Serindia, i. pp. 134 sqq.
5 For the objects shown within brackets the following find-places were indicated by Badruddin Khan : Hanguya ` Tati ' (09-18, 0204-51, 0322-37) ; Ak-tiken (020-37, 0272-7) ; Kalta-kumat (038-68, 0118-21, 0297-325) ; Khâdalik (069) ; Lachin-ata (070-5, 0338-46) ; Kalalik (097114) ; Yôtkan (0122-46, 0170-202) ; Toghrak-mazar (0203) ; Bâsh-kumat (0249-6r, 0383-93) ; Yantak-kuduk (0278-96) ; Arkalik (0347-81).
For I-Ianguya ` Tati ', Khadalik, Lachin-atâ, Arkalik, cf. Serindia, i. pp. 534, 154 sqq., 1263, 134, respectively. Ak-tiken is known to me as an alternative name used by ` Taklamakânchis ' for the Kara-dong site ; see Ancient Khotan, i. p. 445. Toghrak-mazar is the small site, SE. of Kotaz-langar, which is briefly described below. Bashkumat and Kalta-kumat are likely to be localities near the jade-pits of Kumat ; see Ancient Khotan, i. p. 472. The position of Kalalik and Yantak-kuduk is unknown to me.
6 See Serindia, i. pp. 134 sqq.