Sec. vii] THE ANCIENT CASTRUM L.E. AND REMAINS ON MESA L.F. 265
enveloped in a shroud of coarse canvas, apparently of hemp, similar in weave to the specimen L.F. 03. Tied up into a small bunch on the edge of the shroud where it lay across the breast was a packet of little broken twigs, evidently intended for consumption by the dead in another life.loa The tied-up end of the shroud above the breast was fastened with fine stalks of hard wood, L.F. I. 03. Underneath the shroud the body was bare except for a kind of loin-cloth made up of dark brown tassels of wool. The feet, as already stated, were stuck in short moccasins, made of red leather and quite plain.
Three baskets of neatly woven cane-like grass were found deposited within the coffin and evidently had once held food-stuffs. But these had probably been destroyed by rodents or insects. One of these baskets, L.F. 1. 04 (Pl. XXIX), remained intact and shows at its upper end ornamentation with zigzag bands. The other two, L.F. 012 ; I. 01, had suffered much damage.
The grave we opened next, L.F. 3, was the one lying near the foot end of L.F. 2. This had no enclosing fence, and erosion had laid bare the hides covering a coffin similar in its rough make to that of the grave last described. In it lay the body of what I took to be a young girl, enveloped in a shroud of coarse canvas, as shown by the specimen L.F. 03. A plain felt cap covered the head. The forelocks of its dark hair were cut round the forehead after the fashion often seen on female heads of terracotta figurines from Y6tkan." The face appeared to be a well-formed oval and the eyes large and straight. Two decorated pins of hard wood, L.F. 3. 01, 2 (P1. XXIV), and the finely made bone-pin, L.F. 3. 03 (P1. XXIV), which fastened the shroud, had probably been in use by the dead in her lifetime, and likewise the large jade bead, L.F. 3. 04 (Pl. XXIV). To the right of the head stood a small basket jug, plain but excellently woven.
The last grave examined, L.F. 4, lay close to i, and its wooden enclosure is seen in Fig. 168 on the right. The Toghrak planks composing it did not rest on the coffin, yet correctly marked its position. The coffin was made up of two hollowed-out Toghrak trunks with cross-pieces at the two ends and boards across on the top, just as in L.F. 1 ; but here the latter were not contiguous and left open interspaces several inches wide. The whole was tightly covered with two cow-hides. Three or four feathered reeds found beneath them may have been meant for arrows, perhaps a provision for happy hunting-grounds beyond.
The body found in this grave lay about two feet deeper than that in L.F. i. It was that of a middle-aged man completely enveloped in a coarse canvas shroud. The head, as seen in Fig. 172 after removal of the covering portion of the shroud, was turned to the left proper. It, too, was fairly well preserved and showed distinctly non-Mongolian features. The high-bridged aquiline nose is clearly seen in the photograph. Abundant dark hair appeared on the head and round the chin and mouth. The former was covered with a head-dress of yellow felt, L.F. 04 (Pl. XXIX), similar in type to L.F. oi, but more ample, and decorated, besides the plumes, with seventeen rows of red cord stitched round the cap. In addition to the rodent's skin worn as a crest, a tuft of rich feathers was inserted at the point of the crown. The whole was a good illustration of the kind of headdress which would appeal to men who found their chief pleasure in the chase. To the right of the head was placed the neatly woven grass basket, L.F. 05 (Pl. XXIX). The edge of the shroud near the head was tied up into two small bags, one of which, as removed in the basket L.F. 05, was found to contain grains of wheat and the other small twigs. The wooden pin with decorated barrel-shaped head, L.F. 05. a (Pl. XXIV), and the short sharp-pointed stalks, also listed with this basket, served as fastenings for the shroud..
loa [The twigs have been recognized by Dr. A. B. Rendle • 11 See, e. g., Anc. Khotan, ii. Pl. XLIII, Y. 0030 ; XLV,
as belonging to the Ephedra plant widely spread from Tibet B. oor. g ; Y. 0031 ; Serindia, iv. Pl. I, Yo. 009. h. zo ;
to Persia. For the special interest presented by this identifica- oo41. g ; Pl. II, Yo. z.
tion, cf. note in Add. & Corr.]
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