Sec. iv] HISTORICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN BARKUL AND HAMI 547.
garrisons in the ` New Dominion '. Kan-su, too, fell into the power of Tungan rebels and was-not recovered by the imperial forces until 1873. It was here that Tso Tsung-t`ang started the preparations for the .campaign which was to restore to the Empire its lost Central-Asian dominion.
The possession of Hâmi as a base was an indispensable condition for the success of the operations, which were actively commenced in 1874. ' But it was not by an advance on the direct route through the Pei-shan that this base was secured. The Chinese force destined to effect this object moved first far away north into Mongolia and thence early in 1875 took Barkul. Thereupon Hâmi also was quickly secured, and the direct route through the desert south-eastwards opened.44 By means of this route it became possible gradually to assemble the armies which in 1876, moving forward towards Kulja on the line of Guchen, Urumchi and Manas, overthrew the Tungan confederacy in the territories north of the Tien-shan ; a-year later they put an end to Yaqûb Bég's Muhammadan kingdom by an advance from Hâmi upon Turfân and by the rapid conquest of the Tarim basin which followed.45
Hàmi used as base,