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Explorations in Turkestan 1903 : vol.1

Caption Index

0030 [Figure] 1 Section of the Trenched Tumulus at Anau.
0030 [Photo] 2 The Trench in the Anau Tumulus.
0030 [Photo] 3 The Maul in the Anau Tumulus.
0033 [Photo] 4 Section through a small Muffle-shaped bject in the Anau Tumulus.
0034 [Photo] 5 Remains of Earthen Wall in the Anau Tumulus.
0035 [Photo] 6 Plateau of Accumulated Debris of Occupation in Ghiaur Kala.
0036 [Photo] 7 Paikent, a Sand-buried City.
0037 [Photo] 8 A mosque of Mediæval Samarkand.
0038 [Photo] 9 Water Pool System in the Culture ~ations of Ancient Samarkand.
0050 [Figure] 10 Sketch of the Uplands across the Bosporus, looking eastward from near Robert College, north of Constantinople.
0050 [Figure] 11 Bird's-eye Diagram of Bosporus at its exit from the Black Sea.
0051 [Figure] 12 Sketch of Headland and Foreland, west of Samsun, south coast of Black Sea, looking west.
0051 [Figure] 13 Profile of Elevated Shorelines east of Trebizonde, south coast of Black Sea, looking East.
0052 [Figure] 14 Diagram to illustrate the occurrence of gravels near Trebizonde.
0053 [Figure] 15 Sketch Map of te District southwest of Baku.
0054 [Photo] 16 An old Caspian Shoreline, near Baku.
0055 [Figure] 17 Three-mile section of Ridge, six miles northeast of Baku, looking north.
0055 [Photo] 18 The Oil-Wells of Bibi-Eibat, two miles south of Baku, looking south.
0056 [Photo] 19 A Cobble Spit on a ridge near Zuyk, seven miles northeast of Baku, looking north; fissured Aralo-Caspian Strata in the foreground.
0058 [Figure] 20 Rough sketch Map and Sections of the District about Krasnovodsk.
0059 [Photo] 21 An Elevated Caspian Shoreline in the Balkhan Mountains, near Jebel Station, Central Asiatic Railway.
0066 [Photo] 22 Dissected Terraces at the base of the Kopet Dagh, south of the Kizil-Arvat, looking southwest. The horizontal limestones of the Mountain on the left are suddenly bent down so as to pass under the clays of the Terraces in the middle distance.
0067 [Photo] 23 Sand-hills near Bakharden, looking south.
0068 [Photo] 24 A Barkhan near Bakharden, looking south.
0069 [Photo] 25 A Village of Turkoman Kibitkas, near Kizil-Arvat.
0070 [Figure] 26 Geological Outline Map of the Kopet Dagh, southwest of Askhabad.
0073 [Figure] 27 Terraces in the Serani Valley, looking northwest.
0075 [Figure] 28 Two-mile profile Terraces at Namali, looking east.
0075 [Figure] 29 Two-mile section of Synclinal Valley, southeast of Namali.
0076 [Figure] 30 Two-mile profile of Terraces in the Duruigar Valley, looking east.
0077 [Figure] 31 Scheme of Terrace Development.
0080 [Photo] 32 The Central Mound of Ghaiur Kala, from 60 to 80 feet high, in Old Merv, looking north.
0081 [Photo] 33 Sand Dunes south of Charjui, looking northwest.
0083 [Figure] 34 Diagram of Railroad Cut, south of Jizak.
0086 [Figure] 35 Diagram of Loess Drifts, near Kara-bulak, looking south.
0089 [Photo] 36 Kambar-Ali, the Min-Bashi of Kugart.
0090 [Photo] 37 The Min-Bashi of Kugart and his Men.
0091 [Photo] 38 Kuve-Gen-Shigai-ef, his Younger Wife and Children, and our Head Man, Ma'raim.
0092 [Photo] 39 Kuve-Gen-Shigai-ef and some of his Men at Akh Tash, Son Kul.
0097 [Figure] 40 The Flat-Topped Bural-bas-tau, looking Southeast.
0097 [Figure] 41 The Flat-Topped Bural-bas-tau, looking South.
0099 [Figure] 42 Distant Profile of the Alexander Range, looking west.
0099 [Figure] 43 Rough sketch Map of the Ranges southwest of Issik Kul.
0100 [Figure] 44 Ideal Section from Range C to D, Figure 43, looking east.
0101 [Photo] 45 A Tarentass at a Station on the Post-road between Vyernyi and Semipalatinsk.
0101 [Figure] 46 Rough outline of the Dsungarian Ala-tau, looking south.
0102 [Figure] 47 Rough Sketch of a Range near Abukumof Station looking south.
0103 [Photo] 48 The Rolling Steppe north of Sergiopol, Semipalatinsk.
0108 [Photo] 49 The Chalai Range from Kum-ashu Pass in the Kok-tal Range, looking north; a large old Moraine advances to the left, behind the dark spur. The crest of the Chalai Range is dimmed by clouds.
0109 [Figure] 50 Moraine in the Tuluk Valley, looking west.
0110 [Photo] 51 A young Moraine within the Old Moraine in the Chalai Range, looking north.
0112 [Photo] 52 Snowfield below Sutto-bulak Pass in the Kungei Ala-tau, looking southwest; a Cirque in the background.
0114 [Figure] 53 Profile of a Cirque at the Head of a normal Valley.
0114 [Figure] 54 Cirque in the Kalkagar-tau.
0115 [Figure] 55 Cirques in the Kalkagar-tau
0115 [Figure] 56 Cirque near Sutto-bulak Pass, Kungei Ala-tau.
0116 [Figure] 57 General Cross-section of the Narin Formation, looking east.
0117 [Figure] 58 A small Monocline in the Narin Formation, looking east.
0117 [Figure] 59 Three-mile section through Ulu-tuz Gorge, looking east.
0118 [Photo] 60 The Alabuga Valley, looking north. The east end of the Chaar Tash Range is seen over the dissected anticlinal ridge of the Narin formation; gypseous efflorescence whitens the transverse gorge walls in the anticlinal ridge. Kirghiz Tombs in the foreground.
0119 [Figure] 61 Four-mile section across the northern border of the Narin formation, looking east.
0120 [Figure] 62 Fifteen-mile section across the Kach-kar Basin, looking east.
0122 [Photo] 63 Terraces of the (western) Kugart, looking northeast.
0123 [Figure] 64 Three-mile section across the (western) Kugart Valley, looking northeast.
0123 [Photo] 65 Gorge of the (western) Kugart, above Taran Bazaar, looking east.
0124 [Figure] 66 One-mile section of Gorge in the (western) Kugart Valley, looking northeast.
0124 [Photo] 67 Upper Terrace of the (eastern) Kugart, near the Kirghiz Bridge, looking southwest. Dissected hills and spurs of tilted older conglomerates in the background.
0125 [Photo] 68 Gravel Bluff in the Terraces of the (eastern) Kugart, looking south. Spurs of conglomerate in the middle distance; the Fergana Range in the background.
0126 [Figure] 69 Ten-mile section of a Landslide in the (eastern) Kugart Valley, looking northeast. The present river valley is eroded in horizontal gravels that occupy an older and much wider valley eroded in tilted conglomerates.
0126 [Figure] 70 Two-mile section of Terraces in Alabuga Valley, looking east.
0127 [Figure] 71 Three-mile section of Terraces at the junction of the Alabuga and Narin Rivers, looking east.
0128 [Figure] 72 Ideal section of Terraces.
0132 [Photo] 73 A Drowned Valley in the Plain at the east end of Issik Kul, looking northeast.
0133 [Figure] 74 Shorelines of Issik Kul at the northwest end (A), the middle (B), and the northeast end (C) of the lake, reduced to 18 versts to an inch from the 2-verst Russian map.
0134 [Figure] 75 Diagram of the relation of a Valley, the raised Beaches, and the present Shoreline of Issik Kul.
0135 [Figure] 76 Profile of the Issik Kul shorelines on a granitic headland, looking west.
0136 [Figure] 77 Effect of tilting on an inclosed lake; uplift on the right.
0136 [Figure] 78 Effect of tilting on an inclosed lake; uplift on the left.
0138 [Figure] 79 Stone Circles near Lake Son Kul. The distance in feet between the circles is indicated in figures on the right.
0140 [Photo] 80 A Carvec Stone on the plain at the east end of Issik Kul, looking south.
0147 [Figure] 81 A Skeleton Map of Fergana.
0148 [Figure] 82 Map of the Pamir, taken from Sven Hedin's Map.
0149 [Photo] 83 A Kirghiz Caravan on its way to the Alai Valley.
0149 [Photo] 84 A Poplar Tree in the Taldic Valley.
0150 [Photo] 85 Looking up the Taldic Valley at the Entrance to the Broad Plain of Ak-Busa-Ga.
0151 [Photo] 86 Ak-Busa-Ga.
0151 [Photo] 87 Looking across the Alai Valley to the Trans-Alai Mountains. Taken from a peak north of Sari Tash.
0152 [Photo] 88 The Kirghiz in the Alai Valley.
0154 [Photo] 89 Looking down the Kara Kul from Uy Bulak pass.
0155 [Photo] 90 Deflated bowlder of granite.
0155 [Photo] 91 Deflated bowlder of granite, hollowed side facing east. Taken at 10.30 a.m.
0155 [Photo] 92 A talus-shrouded mass of crystalline limestone.
0155 [Photo] 93 A glacial bowlder crystalline limestone cracking from the changes of temperature.
0156 [Photo] 94 Common type of weathered bowlders. The light fragments strewn about it are parts of the former mass.
0157 [Photo] 95 A kettle-hole Lake on the Moraine extending from the Kurumdi Mass transversely into the Alai Valley. The Trans-Alai Mountains rising into the clouds.
0158 [Figure] 96 Section of Alai Valley Transverse Moraine.
0158 [Figure] 97 Ideal section of a "twice-troughed" valley.
0159 [Figure] 98 Section across Kizil-Art Valley at Bor Daba, looking north.
0160 [Figure] 99 Profile to show moraines and terraces of the Kizil-Art Valley.
0164 [Photo] 100 The Northern Peninsula of Kara Kul. The white of the lower portion of the right half of the illustration is salt, probably CaSO4.
0165 [Figure] 101 An east-west section of the Kara Kul Basin.
0165 [Figure] 102 Section of Kara Kul sediments exposed in Hillock Bluff about 100 feet above Lake.
0166 [Photo] 103 Moraine of the Kara Kul Basin, looking northwest on the Older Moraine. An overriding Moraine seen in the distance on the right.
0167 [Photo] 104 Sediment pushed up by an overriding Moraine.
0167 [Photo] 105 Sediment pushed up by an overriding Moraine.
0167 [Photo] 106 Concretionary growths of Calcium Sulphate on Moraine more than 100 feet above Lake.
0168 [Photo] 107 Looking north from the front of the Kara Jilga Moraine to the Kizil Kul Steppe.
0169 [Photo] 108 The valley heading a little west of Kizil-Art and joining the Kizil Kul Steppe.
0170 [Photo] 109 Drowned Valleys on the west side of the North Peninsula. Looking north to the Trans-Alai range.
0173 [Figure] 110 Section looking north up the Sari Tash Valley.
0174 [Photo] 111 The eastern side of the Sari Tash Valley from about 5 versts below Katin-Art Pass.
0174 [Photo] 112 Remnants of Floor A, as seen looking down from just below Taldic Pass.
0175 [Photo] 113 Taldic Valley Terraces, looking up the Taldic Valley from Floor B, about 63 versts above Gulcha. Floor A is high up on the right.
0175 [Photo] 114 Taldic Valley Terraces, looking up the Taldic Valley from Floor C, about 46 versts above Gulcha.
0176 [Figure] 115 Map of the Ak-Busa-Ga grass plain and stream channels.
0180 [Figure] 116 Section to show double change of slope in Langar Gullies.
0180 [Figure] 117 Section en route, 20 versts north of Langar, looking 15°south of west. The tilted waste inclines under the later waste.
0182 [Figure] 118 Explanatory diagram for example in determining relative antiquity of horizons of the waste on the plains.
0183 [Photo] 119 The sharp peaks south of Alai Crest. Taken from a peak some versts east of Katin-Art Pass.
0190 [Figure] 120 Sketch map of Central Turkestan.
0191 [Figure] 121 Sketch map, showing location of Figure 120.
0193 [Photo] 122 Folds in the Limestone in the Sugun Valley west of Shor Kul, looking west.
0194 [Photo] 123 Ripple-marks on the lower half of the pink sandstone near Kan Su, west of Kashgar.
0202 [Figure] 124 Cross-section of the Tian Shan Plateau from Issik Kul southwest to the Kashgar Basin. Vertical exaggeration= 7. The unshaded profile is drawn on the true scale. The numbers attached to formations refer to Table I, p. 162.
0203 [Photo] 125 Scene in the Yak_Tash_Basin, in the northern part of the Tian Shan plateau, looking northwest. In the foreground the basin-floor is covered with a flat moraine holding numerous ponds; beyond are smooth-topped mountains cut by glacial valleys.
0205 [Photo] 126 View of the Tertiary strata on the edge of the Kashgar Basin west of Kashgar City. The layers here dip northwest away from the basin, which lies behind he observer. On the left several portions of an old grade plain probably represent the work of an early glacial epoch.
0206 [Photo] 127 Fault scarp on the southern side of the Kuzzil Oi Basin, with a smooth deposit of silt lying in front of it.
0207 [Figure] 128 Drainage of the Kuzzil Oi and Min Yol basins.
0209 [Photo] 129 Gorge of the Ispairan in its lower portion, where it begins to widen as it flows northward from the Alai Mountains to the Fergana Basin. The valley is filled with gravel, in which the stream has cut terraces.
0210 [Photo] 130 Limestone Gorge of the Western Kichik Alai, where it enters the Ispairan River on the north side of the Alai Mountains. Probably the upper portion of the gorge was widened by a glacier, and the narrow slit at the bottom represents post-glacial cutting. The main valley, from the side of which the photograph was taken, is clearly of glacial origin, and the side valley must have borne a hanging relation to that of the master stream.
0217 [Figure] 131 Longitudinal section of the Khoja Ishken or Kok Su Valley.
0218 [Photo] 132 Youngest Gorge of the Khoja Ishken, cut in the Bottom of the Main Glacial Valley. The over-steepened sides of the latter show clearly on the right.
0219 [Photo] 133 Marble Bowlders, and beginning of the Gorge associated with the fourth Khoja Ishken Glacier.
0220 [Figure] 134 Cross-sections of the Khoja Ishken Valley, to show the shape and relative size of the three gorges. Drawn from the observation, without measurement . The circles indicate moraines. The lightly shaded portions indicate the amount of erosion since the respective parts of the valley were filled with ice.
0220 [Figure] 135 Cross-sections of the three gorges of the Khoja Ishken Valley, to show the amount of widening and erosion of the valley in each case relative to the power of the stream and of erosion without reference to the actual size.
0221 [Figure] 136 Sketch map showing the location of the Mudirum Moraines.
0224 [Figure] 137 Cross-section of the Kan Su Valley at an elevation of 11, 000 feet.
0226 [Figure] 138 Plan of the Moraines of the Taka Valley.
0227 [Figure] 139 Cross-section of the Taka Valley, looking north.
0233 [Photo] 140 View down the Kuzzil Su on the eastern border of Bokhara, showing a gravel-filled valley which has been re-excavated. In the foreground four terraces can be seen on the left.
0234 [Photo] 141 Terraces and Meanders of another Kuzzil Su near Chadir Kul, on the Tian Shan Plateau, at an elevation of 11, 000 feet. These terraces are cut partly in gravel and partly in red Tertiary limestone.
0235 [Photo] 142 Terrace wall of the Kan Su, west of Kashgar, showing horizontal gravel above tilted Mesozoic strata. On the left or north side are the coal measures; on the right are the vermilion-red beds. Between the two can be detected a slight unconformity, A.
0236 [Photo] 143 Terraces of the Kok Kiya, on the Tian Shan Plateau, at an elevation of 11, 500 feet. In the foreground and in the middle distance the stream has been caught upon limestone and has cut merely a narrow gorge, while in the gravel between it has excavated a broad flood-plain with terraced sides.
0237 [Figure] 144 Cross-section of the Ispairan Valley, showing successive periods of cutting and filling.
0239 [Photo] 145 Shor Kul, looking south.
0242 [Figure] 146 North and south section of the plain of Shor Kul from the lake to the mountains at Dungsugot.
0242 [Figure] 147 Cross-section of a Valley cut in the silt at Dungsugot. For explanation see fig. 146.
0243 [Photo] 148 The gravel-covered lacustrine deposits at Dungsugot, illustrations the same features as the preceding diagrams. For explanation see fig. 146.
0248 [Figure] PL. 4 Map of Iran
0260 [Photo] 149 Windmills at Tabas.
0261 [Figure] 150 Horizontal section of a Persian windmill.
0261 [Photo] 151 Ruins at the Mil-i-Kasimabad, near Zahidan. These mud walls are at least five hundred years old. Only those in a north-and-south direction remain standing.
0263 [Figure] 152 Sketch map of the double basin of Iran.
0268 [Photo] 153 The ruins of Old Kuchan.
0270 [Figure] 154~1 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Cretaceous limestone.
0270 [Figure] 154~2 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary brown limestone.
0270 [Figure] 154~3 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary brown sandstone.
0270 [Figure] 154~4 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary thin clayey limestone.
0270 [Figure] 154~5 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary soft sandstone.
0270 [Figure] 154~6 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary impure yellow limestone.
0270 [Figure] 154~7 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary reddish-brown sandstone.
0270 [Figure] 154~8 North and south section along the Heri Rud at Pul-i-Khatun. Tertiary white limestone.
0271 [Figure] 155~a Section near Khitayi, on the southern border of the Zorabad basin. Shale.
0271 [Figure] 155~b Section near Khitayi, on the southern border of the Zorabad basin. Sandstone and conglomerate.
0271 [Figure] 155~c Section near Khitayi, on the southern border of the Zorabad basin. Lacustrine clay.
0271 [Figure] 155~d Section near Khitayi, on the southern border of the Zorabad basin. Recent gravel.
0287 [Figure] 156 North and south section along the Anau Brook, across the Anau fault block. Dash lines indicate terraces.
0292 [Photo] 157 Terraces of the Heri Rud, near Khatayi. View northeast across the river into Afghanistan.
0293 [Figure] 159 Sketch-map of Kogneh Lake and the Jam Basin.
0298 [Photo] 159 A slightly terraced Valley in the Mountains of Binalud Kuh, 30 miles north of Turbat-i-Haideri, March 3, 1904.
0299 [Figure] 160 Terraces in the Valley of Haji Hussein Beg in the Chahak Basin.
0300 [Photo] 161 The Town of Bajistan, looking east. In the Middle Foreground the Fields are Terraced for Cultivation. In the immediate foreground lies a fluviatile terrace cut in silt and gravel.
0301 [Figure] 162 Terraces at the Northeastern Corner of the Bajistan Basin.
0310 [Photo] 164 A Typical Portion of the Gravel Desert northeast of Sistan.
0311 [Photo] 165 A Raft of Reeds poled by a Sayid, or "Fowler," on the Edge of the Swamp of Sistan.
0312 [Photo] 166 An Arm of the Lake of Sistan. In the foreground are beds of reeds; in the background, the lacustrine plain.
0314 [Photo] 167 Canals in the Delta of the Helmund at Sistan. One canal crosses the other upon a bridge of weeds.
0317 [Figure] PL. 5 Sections of Lake Deposits from Various Locations along the Northwestern Shore of the Lake of Sistan.
0320 [Figure] 168 Ideal cross-section of the Mesa of Kuh-i-Khoja. Heavily shaded portions= lava ; lightly shaded portions = pink silt; unshaded portions = green clay.
0323 [Figure] PL. 6 Map of Sistan
0330 [Figure] 169 Ideal Cross-section of the Lake Terraces and Bluffs of the Northwest Shore of the Lake of Sistan.
0332 [Photo] 170 Lacustrine Bluffs and Recent Sand-dunes near Seh-Kuheh. View to the northeast.
0333 [Photo] 171 Abandoned Beach and Lacustrine Bluffs at Sabazkim. At the base of the bluffs sand-dunes are accumulating.
0334 [Photo] 172 Old Lake Beach at Sabazkim, looking West. The lake stood on the right of the beach and a lagoon on the left.
0334 [Figure] 173 Ideal cross-section of the old Lacustrine Beach at Sabazkim.
0335 [Figure] 174 Sketch Map of the Ancient Shore features in the Bay Sabazkim.