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0264 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.2
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.2 / Page 264 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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860   366. TREPESONDE

a metathetical form tuqta'ul. Moreover, from the sense of « watchman », tutya'ul came to mean also « watch-station » (particularly in the mountains), just as it has been with qara'ul. It is this word tutya'ul which is correctly used by Ragidu-'d-Din in the form J5,;;,; tutyaul; the fantastic explanations of Bl, II, 529, 614, and App. 52, must be discarded. The pass of Chia-yü-kuan (W. of Su-chou, Kansu) is called Qaraul by Sâh-Rokh's envoys, but Tutqaul by Tamerlane's biographer (cf. YI, I, 175, 274). It is tutyaul which is misread « tangaoul » in Oh, iv, 471-472 (J31,ß;.; misread J,\ ), and I suspect that Pegolotti's « tantaullo » is a corrupt form of tutyaul (cf. Y', III, '161). Cf. also HAMMER, Gold. Horde, 241, 245, 514; Zap. of Or. Sect. Arch. Soc., III, 24; Ber, I, 96, 236. My explanations are only partly in agreement with BANG, Vom köktürk. zum Osman., II-III, 6364, who has seen in some forms a metathesis, but has also admitted the presence here of different roots, toqta-, tut- and tus-.


trabesonda V, VB, VL; R   trapesunda Z   trepesunda L

trapesonda LT   trebisonda TAS; R   tripesende VA

trapesonde FA, FB   trepesonde, trepisonde F   tripisonde TAl

Trebizond. On the various mediaeval transcriptions, cf. HALLBERG, 540-541 (but Polo's is omitted, and also Hethum's « Trapesonde »). « Trapesunda », « Trabesonda », etc., occur in many documents of the end of the 13th cent. in BRXTIANU, Actes des notaires génois.

  1. TUC

tuc FB; R   tut F, FA, VB

Polo says that a Mongol army is of 100,000 men, subdivided in corps or groups of 10,000, 1 000, 100 and 10; he adds that 100,000 is « tuc » and 10,000 is « toman »; in another part of his work, he uses « toman » as a unit of 10,000, without reference to the army; as a matter of fact, «toman », tümän, is really known as a term meaning « 10,000 » and as a designation of a « corps of 10,000 » (see «toman »).

The case of « tuc » is more difficult. All commentators have agreed in seeing there Turk. ty; tuy, « standard », which has passed into Persian (where it is also written ,i tug; cf. VULLERS, II, 551). On this word, cf. Y, I, 263-264 (leaving out of account, at least phonetically, old Persian