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0284 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.2
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.2 / Page 284 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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880   384. YARCAN

corresponding section of the Wei shu; but this original section of the Wei shu is lost, and it has been replaced in Sung times by the chapter of the Pei shih, with one change of date and the suppression of a few paragraphs. It is thus no surprise for us when we find in the Wei shu, as it exists now, exactly the same notice on Ch'ü-so as is given in the Pei shih; it adds nothing to the authority of the latter text. But a much earlier source, the Wei lio, which was written in the second quarter of the 3rd cent., mentions in succession « the kingdom of So-chü (Yàrkänd), the kingdom of

Chieh-shih (*G`jät-zi<äk; perhaps read §8   Chieh-shih, *G`iät-zAäk, and cf. CHAVANNES, Doc. sur

les Tou-kiue, 69), the kingdom of   7% Ch'ü-sha (*G`jwo-a), the kingdom of   Tk. Hsi-yeh, ... »
(cf. CHAVANNES, in TP, 1905, 554). The Hou-Han shu (118, 4 a) has a notice on « the kingdom

of Hsi-yeh, also called   'ep P'iao-sha » (*P`jäu-sa; CHAVANNES, misled by a misprint in the T'u-

shu-chi-ch'êng Shanghai edition, gives f   Lu-sha in TP, 1907, 174; but all the ancient editions

have P'iao-sha, adopted in DE GROOT Chin. Urkunden, II, 79). The Hou-Han shu owes much to the Wei lio, and I hold it for certain that its P'iao-sha is merely a copyist's error for the Ch'üsha of the Wei lio. It is no less clear that the Ch'ü-sha of the Wei lio and the Ch'ü-so of the Pei shih also represent one and the same name. In all likelihood, Ch'ü-sha, indirectly supported by P'iao-sha of the Hou-Han shu, is the correct form, and sha was altered to so in the Pei shih under the influence of the following So-chü. But even the identification of Ch'ü-sha > Ch'ü-so with So-chü = Yàrkänd is unreliable, since both the Wei lio and the Hou-Han shu (this with the corrupt form Piao-sha) agree in mentioning Ch'ü-sha quite apart from So-chü (Yàrkänd). The wrong identifications of ancient names in this chapter of the Pei shih are numerous. Moreover, in spite of what was thought by STEIN and HERRMANN, the ancient name So-chü may have still been in use under the Wei of the 5th cent. This is at least what is implied by the notice of the Pei shih (97, 9 b-10 a; cf. Wei shu, 102, 7 b; T'ung tien, 193, 7 a; T'ai-p'ing yü-lan, 797,16 b) on the kingdom

of the Rif î   A-kou Ch'iang. These A-kou (*•Â-kau), perhaps the same as the *Askoka of the
Candragarbha as translated in 566 (cf. BEFEO, y, 263, 275), came to the knowledge of the Chinese in the 5th cent., since the distance between their country and China is still given as from the Wei capital Tai, which was abandoned in 494. At the same time, the notice says that their kingdom lay « south-west of So-chU », thus still using So-chü as the ordinary name of Yàrkänd.

The compilers of the Hsi-yü t'u-chih (18, 6 a) have also identified with Yàrkänd the « tribe

(4 chung) Mfr pI   Chê-chü-chia (*T'§jak-kju-ka), also called iif     Chü-ch'ü (*Tsj<wo-g`iwo) »
of Hsin T'ang shu, 221 B, 3 b. This is merely taken from Hsüan-tsang, who speaks of the kingdom

of Chê-chü-chia, and adds in a note that « formerly » (   chiu) it was called Chü-ch'ü (cf. JULIEN,

Mémoires, u, 221). Chü-ch'ü or .f     Chü-ch'ü (*Tsiwo-g`jwo) is familiar to us as a Hsiung-nu
title, which later became a surname, but no trace of a country or city of that name has been found in texts referring to Chinese Turkestan beyond the note in Hsüan-tsang's Memoirs (Chü-ch'ü is used instead of Chê-chü-chia in the biography of Hsüan-tsang inserted into the Hsü-kao-sêng chuan, ch. 4, but it is there simply taken from the Memoirs themselves). Chê-chü-chia supposes an original *Cakuka. It occurs before Hsüan-tsang, in traditions going back to Jnànagupta who

passed through Cakuka c. 557; the transcription is there   4 j   Chê-chü-chia (*T'§ja-kiu-ka;
cf. TP, 1905, 333-334, 353; BEFEO, v, 254-256). The geographical lists of the Candragarbha, translated in 566, mention the kingdom of 31,t / AgChê-chü-chia (*T'§ja-kjwo-ka), shortened once