Nasal Index. (Table IL)
As might be expected from the short analysis of the absolute nasal-breadths, the nasal indices also are rather confusing. Moreover, they are the less useful, because in every case the standard deviations are high. The Kirghiz are by far the most platyrrhine (77.14), the Tajik of Bokhara following at a long distance with an average index of 66.54, and the Wanji also at some distance (60.87). The Sistani are the most leptorrhine (54.48). The rest fall between, the Biloch and Sayad (57.44 and 57.68) standing together• just below the Özbeg (59.96).
The nasal measurements show, therefore, that though the Wakhi and Ishkashmi approximate in head-measurements to the Kirghiz and Özbeg, they are considerably more leptorrhine than the former ; moreover that, in nasal-breadth, a considerable difference exists between the Kirghiz and Özbeg. The Sistani-Sayad-Biloch combination is not disturbed, while the Wakhi still show affinities with the Ishkashmi, the Darwazi with the Wanji, and the Oxus peoples with each other. The position of the Tajik is still uncertain.
Bizygomatic-breadth. (Table III.)
The Ishkashmi and Wakhi exhibit the narrowest faces (I22.5o and I22.84, respectively), followed by the Tajik (124.37). At the other end of the scale are the Sayad (135.39), Özbeg (135.33), and Karategin (134.27). The Wakhi-Ishkashmi, therefore, as in nasal absolutes, show strong differentiation from the Özbeg, but the Sayad stand with the latter and not with the former. The Sayad, Sistani (132.30), and Biloch (130.63) show a more strained relationship than in any of the measurements yet considered. The Darwazi and Wanji (131.88 and 133.74) fall on either side of the Sistani.
Facial-length. (Table III.)
This absolute shows a different grouping. The Shughnani (I18.II) Sistani (117.65), and Wakhi (117.25) provide the maxima ; the Yazgulami (1.'0.05), Darwazi (113.28), and Özbeg (113.89) the minima. In respect of this measurement the Ishkashmi (114.79) stand rather aloof from the Wakhi, and the relationship between the Sistani, Sayad (116.73), and Biloch (114.43) is still rather attenuated. Again the Tajik approximate to the Wakhi (116.75), and the Kirghiz (116.89) exhibit considerable differentiation from the Özbeg.
Total Facial Index. (Table III.)
A consideration of the averages of this index restores certain connexions which seemed to be endangered by the absolutes. At the leptoprosopic end of the scale are the Wakhi (95.68), Shughnani (94.20), Tajik and Ishkashmi (both 94.03). Most euryprosopic are the Yazgulami (84.03), followed by the Özbeg (84.47). At this end of the scale stand the Darwazi and Wanji near together (86.28 and 86.69) ; while the Sayad, Biloch, and Sistani (86.29, 87.64, and 89.26 respectively) fall far nearer together than in the case of their absolute measurements.
On the whole the total facial-measurements and index do not give results which are in contradiction to those already discussed. A slight weakening in the Sistani-Sayad-Biloch combination is evident, while the difference between the Kirghiz and Özbeg is emphasized. At the same time the connexion of the Tajik with the WakhiIshkashmi-Shughnani is reinforced.
Upper Facial-length. (Table IV.)
This measurement does not produce results very far removed from those of the total facial-length, though the order in series is not the same. In total facial-length the maxima were provided by the Shughnani, Sistani, and Wakhi, in that order. In the measurement under consideration we have, at this end of the scale, Sistani (74.73), Sayad (73.03), and Wakhi (72.73), the Shughnani having fallen to 72.12, below the Biloch (72.20). At the other• end, we have still the Özbeg (68.2o) and Yazgulami (68.35), but the Darwazi have receded towards the centre with an average of 71.56. The Tajik (72•o6) remain grouped with the longer-faced peoples.
Upper Facial Index. (Table IV.)
As regards this index, again the Wakhi (59.57), Ishkashmi (58.5o), Tajik (57.56), and Shughnani (57.39) constitute the most leptoprosopic group ; the Özbeg (50.30), Yazgulami (52.08), and Wanji (52.83), the most euryprosopic. This r•ever•ses the position of the Darwazi (54.3o) and Wanji respectively. The differences which appear• are obviously due to the comparative development of the lower• mandible, a question which is at present quite obscure ; but it is obvious that this comparative development is not so great as to produce a vast difference