National Institute of Informatics - Digital Silk Road Project
Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare Books

> > > >
Color New!IIIF Color HighRes Gray HighRes PDF   Japanese English
0091 Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1
Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1 / Page 91 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

New!Citation Information

doi: 10.20676/00000215
Citation Format: Chicago | APA | Harvard | IEEE

OCR Text


Chap. IV]   NOTES ON SHEET No. 7   69

further south towards Marat-bâshi in that   and thence through the previously unexplored

of 1915. On both occasions the atmosphe   barren outer ranges of Kelpin to the desert

ric conditions of the season seriously inter   south, is given in Desert Cathay, ii. pp. 423

fered with astronomical observations as well   sqq. • The general physical conditions of the

as with distant views towards the mountains.   region from Ak-su to Kelpin and Maral-

This, together with the damage suffered by   bashi have been summarily discussed, along

R.B. Lal Singh's theodolite on the former   with its historical topography, in Serindia,

journey, explains why only a single latitude   iii. pp. 1296 sqq.   .

observation of our own (that for Kelpin,   The large if imperfectly cultivated areas

B.3) falls within this sheet.   of Ak-su and Ueh-Turfân owe their occupa-

Fortunately Mr. C. Clementi's astrono   tion to the abundant irrigation supplied by

mical work of 1907 along the Kashgar-Ak   the Taushkan' and Kum-arik rivers which

su highroad met this want by supplying   unite close to the ' Yangi-shahr ' or Chinese

latitudes and chronometric values of longi   town of Ak-su. Both are fed by portions

tude for Ak-su (Yangi-shahr) and for several   of the Tien-shan carrying perpetual snow

of the roadside stations between that place   and in their higher (unsurveyed) valleys

and Maral-bâshi. 8 The longitude thus   affording ample grazing. The outer ranges

determined for Ak-su, 79,° 55' 25", shifts the   to the south of the Taushkan river are on

position accepted in the Russian Trans-   the other hand extremely arid, and the few

frontier map and shown also in Dr. Hassen-   small settlements at their foot wholly depen-

stein's map accompanying Dr. Hedin's   dent on subsoil drainage.

Reisen in Zentral-Asien, 1900, by some 29   South of those ranges extends a wide

minutes to the west, while the difference in   desert plain, partly bare clay or gravel but

the same sense from the longitude deduced   mainly covered with sand from alluvial de-

from our plane-table traverses of 1908, as   posits; in this plain, percolation from the Yar-

shown in Sheet No. 23 of the Serindia map,   kand and Kashgar rivers aided by occasional

is only about 8 minutes. 4 The difference in   inundation maintains abundant jungle vege-

latitude of the position in the latter from   tation. The winding Kara-köl bed, together

that of Mr. Clementi (41° 7' 57") is less   with other branches (C, D. 4) filled at times

than 6 minutes to the south. The routes   of flood, carries the water of the dying Kash-

passing through Uch-Turfiin and Kelpin were   gar-darya occasionally as far as the southern

checked by the accepted positions of Ak-su,   end of Ak-su cultivation. The curious wind-

Kashgar and Maral-bashi, use being made   eroded low hill-chains (A, B. 4) striking

also of the latitudes observed at Kelpin and   across this desert plain at right angles to the

Tunguzluk (Sheet No. 4. C. 4).   Tien-shan axis have been referred to already

A descriptive account of the route sur   above ; see p. 26.
veyed by me from Ak-su to Uch-Turfân Astronomically observed latitude.

1913-15. Kelpin, Camp 342 (Belt's house, E. of Bazar; B. 3) ...   40° 31' 23"


The surveyed area of this sheet is confined to the Maral-bâshi district and the adjacent parts of the Yarkand river course and the Taklamakan desert to the south-east. The route followed in 1908 lay mainly along the high road from Tumshuk towards Yârkand; to the ground then surveyed much

3 See Summary of Geographical Observations taken on a journey front Kashgar to Kowlun, by C. Clementi, Assistant Colonial Secretary, Hong.kong, 1911; also Geogr. Journal. 1912, p. 626.

4 This comparison fully confirms Mr. J. Eccles' observation quoted in my Note on maps illustrating

was added both in the south and north by the work of 1913 and 1915.

Owing to Muhammad Yakfib's astronomical observations having proved unreliable here as elsewhere, no positions fixed in latitude were available besides those recorded by previous travellers. Among these Mr.

explorations in Chinese Turkestan and Kansu, Geogr. Journal, 1911, March, p. 279.

b The spelling Taushkan of Sheet No. 4 appears more correct than Tushkan, i he one used in this sheet, and should have been substituted for the latter.