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0102 Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1
Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu : vol.1 / Page 102 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000215
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tracts of Kuchà and Shahyar to the Tarim. The Charchak R. bed, usually dry, appears to carry occasional floods from the marshes fed by the Kucha river.

Among the oases in the north, Korla is of special interest on account of the ample and constant water supply assured by the Konche-darya, draining the great reservoir

Astronomically observed latitudes.

of the Baghrash lake (Sheet No. 25. A-C. 1). The considerable extent of the Bugur oasis suggests that the Kizil river irrigating it drains a portion of the outer snow-covered Tien-shan range which carries perpetual snow. This river's terminal marshes appear to have been much exaggerated in former maps.

1906-08. Korla, Camp 287 (main Bazar; D. 1)   ....   41' 44' 32"

Jigda-sale, Camp 295 (C. 2)   ...   41° 14' 38"

Inchike-gumbaz, Camp 299 (old tombs; C.2)   ...   ... ,   41° 14' 39"


The surveyed area in the south-eastern   and to the longitude of Lashkar-satma

corner of this sheet is confined to the vicinity   (Sheet No. 26. B. 3), which agreed very

of the Charchan oasis and the course of the   closely in the surveys of 1906 and 1913-14.

Charchan river below it. The routes followed   The route followed in 1906 has been

along the latter in 1906 and 1913 lay on   described in Desert Cathay, i. pp. 319 sqq.

opposite banks, while that leading from the   The historical topography of the Charchan

west to Charchan was the same on both   oasis which, notwithstanding its small size

journeys.   and chequered fortunes, has always been of

On December 28, 1913, a chance of   importance for the ancient caravan route to

exceptionally clear weather enabled me to   the south of the Taklamakan, is fully dis-

fix the position of Kalasti (Camp 116 a of   cussed in Serindia, i. pp. 293 sqq. There, too,

1906 ; C. 4) by intersection from four peaks   I have explained the special geographical

triangulated on the K'un-lun range on the   reasons which have throughout historical

previous journey. This position, which lies   times prevented extensive cultivation at

about 2' to the west of the one shown in   Charchan, notwithstanding the abundant

Sheet No. 46 of the 1906-08 map but agrees   supply of water in its river, and have re-

with it in latitude, has been adopted and   peatedly caused it to be altogether abandoned

used for the determination of Charchan, along   for centuries; see Serindia, i. p. 295.

with the observed latitude of this place.   Corrections. C. 3. For Ayaktar River

The routes along the river were adjusted to   read Ayak-tar R.

a point (Keng-laika), half-way between   D.3. The route line of 1906 from Camp

Tatran and Tim, for which Dr. Hedin's   119a should be extended north to Tim ruin.

latitude observation was available (38°29'34"), Astronomically observed latitude.

1906-08. Charchan-bazar, Camp 103 (Bog's house, west of Bazar; D. 4)   38° 8' 21"


This sheet shows a portion of thb northern main K'un-lun range surveyed in 1906, and again in 1913, from the route leading along its lower slope past the gold pits of Mölcha and Kapa to the Charchan river, as well as the ground traversed by me in both those years along the desert track between the Endere river and Charchan.

The delineation of the ground along the K'un-lun range is based on the triangulation effected in 1906 by Rai Ram Singh, and continued eastwards from the hill-station of Ushlung (near Gudâche, 10,690; D. 2) by

R. B. Lai Singh in 1913 ; for stations and intersected points see Appendix A, Sheets 69 n, G. The desert route is adjusted to the triangulated position of Niya (see Notes on Sheet No. 19) and to that of Kalasti in Sheet No. 22. C. 4, resected from trigonometrical points.

The surveys along the range in the late autumn rendered no reliable observations of the snow-line possible. Its level has been conjecturally shown at 17,000-17,500 feet.

For a brief descriptive account of the desert route, see Desert Cathay, i. pp. 317