jade objects : (Khotan) 114, 1x5, 125, 126 ; celt, (Lou-lan) 746, 748 ; fish, (Kao-ch`ang) 595 ; Netsuki, (Kaoch`ang) 595, 596 ; Netsuki-shaped ornament, (Khara-khoto) 456 ; ring, (Kuchà) 827.
JAGELLO, Colonel Ivan D., Commandant of Pamir division, help received from, xiii, 845, 878.
Jangal-gumbaz cemetery, 57.
jasper, worked, (Lou-lan) 224 ; arrowheads, (Sistan) 952, 968, 969 ; knife, (Ram-rüd) 951, 966.
Jataka scenes, as book illustrations, (Kara-khbja) 451, 495.
Jaushangaz : cultivation at, 882 ; accessibility of, 882.
jewels : paste cabochon, (Khotan) 1IO ; in stucco reliefs, (Toyuk) 622 sq. ; on silver pendant, (Ying-Van) 759.
Jhelam river, or Vyath, ancient Vitastâ, Hydaspes, 2.
Jig. = Jigdalik, objects found at, 823, 1028.
Jigdalik, Ming-oi' of, 832; cave-shrines, 832 sqq. ; manuscript fragments from, 832, 1028; finds from, 833, n. 4 ; sanctity due to presence of springs, 834.
Jimasa, town known to Chinese as Fuyüan, 555.
JORDAN, Sir John, H.B.M.'s Minister at Peking, secures ` favourable treatment ' from Chinese authorities, 320.
JOSHUA, Miss J. assistance of, xvi, xx.
JOYCE, Mr. T. A., British Museum, help rendered by, xix ; ` Note on the Physical Anthropology of the Pamirs and Oxus Basin', App. C, 996 sqq. See also 853, 863, 881, 885, 925.
Juan-juan or Avars, predominance of, in Eastern Tien-shan and Turfan in fifth century, 575, 576.
jungle, (between Yarkand and Ak-su
rivers) 90 ; (Niya) 142 ; (Etsin-gol) 431. juniper, (Yerkh) 855 ; (Raumèdh) 884 ;
juniper brushwood, see wall construction. K.E. = ruined site E. of Khara-khoto, objects found at, 501.
K.G. = Kalat-i-gird, objects found at, bo sqq. 9Khara-khoto, objects found at,
K. Vsqq. ar = Kizil-yar, objects said to have been brought from, 123.
Kafirs in Wakhân : forts ascribed to, 864 sqq., 881 sq. ; their ethnology, 869.
Kaghan river, 6.
K`ai-neên-kuan, ` the defile of the open gate ', name given to Besh-toghrak defile, 324.
kal-ward, Sistan name for Yardangs, 947. Kalalik, antiques from, 99 n. 5.
Kala-i-Panja, Afghan capital of Wakhân, 865.
Kala-i-Timür, ruined site in Sistan, enclosure and mansion, 934.
Kala-i-Wâmar, hamlet, castle of Mirs of Shughnan, 886 sqq.
Kalat-i-gird, ruined circumvallation, (Sis-tan) 948 ; later fort within, 948 ; mound with prehistoric remains, 95o ; list of finds from, 96o sqq.
Kalla spring, attempt to locate, 772. Kalmak-shahri, enclosure, 69. See Toksu. Kalta-kumat, antiques from, 99 n. 5. Kalta-yailak, oasis, 69.
kamghak, thorny scrub, 733.
Kamparchuk, locality, 857.
Kan Shuang, ruler over Kao-ch`ang, 575.
Kan-chou river : width of bed proves volume of water in floods, 408 ; inundation bed of, 510 ; head-waters of, 516 ; highway along valley from Tibetan marches, 517 ; Lai Singh's survey of, 519.
Kao. = Kara-khöja, objects from, 596 sqq.
Kao-ch`ang, district of Turfan, 544.
Kao-ch`ang, ` retrenched camp of ', in Han Annals : distance from, to Chin-man, 565 ; located at Kara-khbja, 565 ; seat of Chinese commandant, 57z, 573 ; seized by Wu-hui, 575 ; under the rule of Ch`ü family, 576 ; ruins of, 590 sqq.
Kao Hsien-chih, Chinese general : defeats Tibetans and occupies Little P`o-lü, 37 ; defeated by Arabs, 37 ; destroys bridge over So-i, 37 ; crosses Darkôt pass, 44 ; passage of Pamirs, 857, 88o ; his ` Northern route ', 86o s.
Kao-t`ai, town, halt at, 508 ; desert to north of, 508.
kapas, portable felt-covered reed-huts used by Üzbegs, 894.
Kara-khbja, in Turfan district : antiques acquired or found at, 594 sqq. ; coins acquired or purchased at, 590 sqq., 993 ; Uighur documents from, 1049. See Kao-eh ang, Idikut-shahri.
Kara-köl-jilga, terminal river-bed, 836.
Kara-korum, old Mongol capital, 456.
Kara-kum, head-quarters of IVei-li, 778 ; irrigation of, 779 ; instability of new settlers, 779 ; ` old ', 781. See Wei-li.
Kara-sai, objects said to have been brought from site near, loo, 123.
kara-su, ` black water ', water from springs, (Domoko) 128 ; (Keriya) 131.
Kara-tash, old copper mine, 7o.
Kara-tash river, 61 ; difficult gorges of, 62.
Kara-tegin : resources of, 891 ; Turkish occupation of, 892 ; trade passing through, 892 ; notices of, in Chinese Annals, 893 ; relations with Darwàz, 893 ; route of ancient silk trade
through, 849 ; migrants of Tajik stock in, physical anthropology of, 996 sqq. Karambar pass, 49.
Karambar river, route past head-waters of, 48 ; difficulties of route through gorges, 48.
Karaul (Kuehl), defile of, remains of old chiusa, 830.
Kare Akhün, quarters in house of, at Toyuk, 614.
Karêzes, underground canals, used for irrigation in Turfan, 563, 568, 586 ; in Khorasan, 899, goo ; remains of, Sistan, 944 ; unsuccessful at Kucha, 814.
Karku-shah, ruined site, (Sistan), 937 ; identified with Karküyeh of Arab geographers, 937.
Karlik-tagh, watershed of, 532 ; abundant grazing lands on N. slope, S36 ; passes over, 539 n. 8.
Kashgar, Chinese Chieh-ch`a, 20 ; stays at, 66 sqq., 842 sq.
Kashgar, sites E. of, 68 sqq. ; Muhammadan coins from, 988.
Kashgar river, ancient beds of, 71, 76,
77, 91; reduced volume of, 79. Kàsim Akhün, hunter, 82 ; antiques
brought by, 94 sqq.
katbra, on painted panel, 132.
Kaufmann, Mount, height of, 851 n. 2. ` Kaurük ' scrub, marks limit of floods, 283.
Kaurük-bulak, salt springs of, visited by Lai Singh, 318.
Kazaks, Turkish nomads, migrations of, towards Tien-shan, 55o ; transport supplied by, 55o ; racial type Caucasian, 55o, 558 ; wealth and comfort of, 55r.
KAZNAKOV, M., his survey of Etsin-gol,
Kelpin-yoli, track from Kelpin to Maralbàshi, 75.
KELTIE, Sir John, Secretary, Royal Geographical Society, friendly interest of, viii.
ke,ners, subterranean rooms in Turfan,
KENYON, Sir Frederic, Director of the British Museum, facilities offered by, xvi.
key, (M. Tagh) 92, 95.
Kh. = Khotan, List of Antiques acquired or presented at Khotan, 109 sqq.
Kha. = Khadalik.
Khadalik : exploration of, in 1906, 128 ; antiques from, 99 n. 5, 134 ; manuscripts from, 1021, 1027.
Khaizhèz, hamlet (Röshan), 885. Khanak-atam, cultivation at, 818. Khanbari, river valley, forests of, 15 ;
scanty cultivation due to lack of
Khandö, watch-tower of, 612.