lagoons, 182 ; in ancient river-beds,
286 ; fossilized frs. of, 320. Tamguluk-tàsh, rock-carvings, 612. TANDY, Colonel E. A., Survey of India,
help of, ix.
Tang Annals, rang shu : on Ta-li-lo, 21;
on Little ,P`o-lü, 36 ; on ` the Stone Town ', on Charkhlik, 164 ; on Chinch`ang, 375 ; on conquest of Turfân,
545 ; on Pei-t`ing, 555, 556 ; on Shihni, 878 ; on Kara-tegin, 893 ; bio-
graphy of Kao-Hsien-chih in, 37, 45 ;
notices of Kao-ch`ang, 577, 579• Tang Chia-hui, Deputy Grand Protector-
General of An-hsi, retirement of,
Tang itineraries : on route along Char-
chan river, 159 ; from Yâr-khoto to Pei-t`ing, 563 ; Kara-shahr to Kucha, 801 ; An-hsi to Ak-su, 817 ; Ak-su to Kashgar, 839.
Tangi-tar gorge, 6o.
Tangir district : forests, trade, &c., 33 ; character of population, 34.
Tangir river, 33.
Tangut, Tibetan race, masters of Kan-su before Mongol conquest, 429.
Tanimaz river, valley of, cultivation,
853 ; effects of earthquake, 835. T`ao-t`-ieh, Chinese ogre : on figured
silks, 239, 250, 256 ; recalls Polynesian design, 25o.
tapestry, woollen frs., (Toghrak-mazar) 127 ; (Lou-lan) 231, 241 •sq. ; (Kaoch`ang) 590, 591, 609 ; L.C. pieces reflect Hellenistic art influence, •241 sq. ; rug showing rainbow stripes ; (Limes) 349. See also silk.
tapestry work, possibly of Western origin,
Taralingin-dürüljin, Mongol name of
T. XLVIII. d, 412.
Tarim basin, contrast at foot of T`ienshan and K`un-lun, 68 ; natural connexion of, with the Su-to-ho, 336 ;
conquered by Lu Kuang, 575.
Tarim river, alternate periods of inunda-
tion and drying up, 181 ; marshes and lagoons of dying river, 181 ; spring floods, 746.
Tars-agar saddle, 851.
task (stone), Turki unit of measurement of volume of water, 142, 161.
Tàsh-bulak, Chinese fort guarding route
from Bai, 534 n. 4.
Tash-kurghan river, S3 sqq.
Tash-kurghan town, ancient capital of Sarikol, 58.
Tâsuki, well, near Ràmrûd, chalcolithic
finds from, 951, 967.
TATE, Mr. G. P., his survey of Sistan,
Tatis, wind-eroded old sites : Achal, 78,
840 ; Kuruk-darya delta, 270, 274 ; Limes, 390 ; Kucha, 82x.
Tatran, increase of cultivation at, 159.
Tawakkél, oasis of, 94.
Tawun-tora, camping place on Etsin-gol, 432-
Tê-lei-man, identified with Shih-ni, 880 ; meaning of name, 88o n. 9a.
Tereks, cultivated white poplars, 54 ; avenues of dead trees, (Niya) 143 sqq. ; in Tanimaz valley, 853 ; roof-beams made of, (Lou-lan) 188.
terra-cottas : appliqué ornament, (Khotan sites) rot sqq., rob, 119, 121, 125,
1053 ; ball, 107 ; bottle, 98, tor ; Buddha heads, see Buddha ; figures astride bar, 125 ; flask, 1053 ; jugs, 98, 109 ; miniature bird-shaped, 125 ; model railing, 108 ; reliefs, (Khotan sites) 103, 106, 108, 112, x x6 ; (Kucha) 825; vases, (Khotan) xox, t2t; vessels, (Khotan) rot sqq., 118 sq., 125, 1053; handles and spouts in form of beasts or grotesques, Io6, III, 112, I25.
green-brown glaze, 126 ; red slip on vase, 125.
See also grotesques, human figure. textile relics of Astâna, 672 sqq. See Astâna, silk, &c.
textile relics of L.C., 281 sqq. ; materials, 231 ; woollen fabrics, weaves of, 231 ; cotton fabrics, weaves of, 232 ; prevalence of silk fabrics, 23x ; silk fabrics, weaves of, 232 sq. ; designs of, 235 sqq. See cotton, silk, woollen.
Tezak-kaghe, Ming-oi of, ruined site, 830 ; cave-shrines at, 831 ; walled enclosure and ruined township, 831.
THOMAS, Professor F. W., help of, xviii; ` Notes on Tibetan Manuscripts, &c.', App. R, 1084 sqq.
THOMSEN, Professor V., help of, xviii ; on Runic Turkish manuscript, App. Q, 1082 sq.
` Thousand Buddhas ', caves of the, see C,h`ien-fo-tung.
` Three Sands, the ', Li Tao-yüan's eastern boundary of the ` Salt Marsh', 305 ; identified with Wei lids ` Three Ridges Sands ', 306 ; located near Besh-toghrak, 307, 327.
three-headed figure, on mural painting of Ghâgha-shahr, 915 sqq. ; compared with Persian divinity, on panel from Dandan-oilik, 916.
tiara, in fresco, (Toyuk) 628.
Tibetan inscription (Darköt pass), record on carved Stüpa, 45, 1051 ; painting, (Ma-ti-ssû) 518 ; influence on Buddhist art, 444, 451, 471.
script : on wooden tablets, (M. Tagh) 92 ; (Sampula) rox ; (Khotan)
1055 ; (Miran) 173 ; on stick, (Domoko) 134 ; paper MSS., (Kharakhoto) 440, 446, 463, 501, 505.
` Notes on Tibetan Manuscripts, illustrated in Plates ', by Professor F. W. Thomas, App. R, 1084 sqq. Tibetans : attack Little P`o-lü in eighth
century, 36 ; invade Gilgit, 46 ; invade the ` Four Garrisons ', 579 ; conquest of Kan-su, 58o ; attacks on Turfàn, 58o ; supremacy of, in E. Turkestan in ninth century, 581; broken by Uighurs, 58r.
T`ieh-lo, or Tölos, Turkish tribes, afterwards called Uighur : occupy Hami, 544 ; influence of, in Turfàn, 576.
Tieh-mên, ` Iron Gate ', defile of the Konche-darya, historical importance of, 783.
T`ieh-min kuan, ` the defile of the Iron Gates ', location of, 8oz.
Tien-shan : passage of easternmost Tien-shan, 529 sqq. ; geology of E. Tien-shan, 532 ; cultivation without irrigation, 533.
watershed, passage of, 56x ; climatic conditions, 634 ; contrast between fertile valleys on N. slope and arid S. slope, 561, 805.
along the foot of, 66 sqq., 787 sqq. trade routes across, 805 ; importance of route along northern slope,
Bien shin, ` the Spirit of Heaven ', wor-
shipped in Turfân, 576. Tien-tsung-ta-wan, Chinese name of T.
XLVIII. e, 412.
Tien-ti, original name of Kao-ch`ang,
578 ; identification of, with Lukchun,
579 n. 44.
tiger-skin, in fresco, x38.
Tikenlik, continued prosperity of, 779. Tilaka, mark painted on forehead ; in
stucco relief, 179 ; in block-prints, 484,
487, 491, 492 ; silk painting, 693.
tiles, clay, or hollow bricks, (Ch`iao-wanch`êng) 388.
Um, designation for old towers, between Korla and Kuchà, 788 ; mound near Charchan, 159 ; ruined village near Kuduk, 70 ; near Kucha, 821.
t`ing, term relating to location of Limes
companies, in Chinese documents, 400. T`ing, Chinese district, N. slope of T`ien-
Toghra-tagh, hill spur on Ying-p`an road, 749.
Toghrak timber, used in house-building, 170, 186, 187, 773. See also wall construction.
Toghrak-akin, (Kuchâ) gorge, 814 ; effects of erosion, 814 ; Buddhist remains, 814 ; cave-shrine, 815 ; terraces with niches, 816 ; remains of wooden structures, 816 ; ruined enclosure, 8x7 ; finds, 817, 823.
Toghrak-bulak, ruined station (Kuruktagh), 730.
Toghrak-bulak, locality on terminal Sulo-ho, 337.
Toghrak-mazàr, antiques from, 99 n. 5, loo ; Sanskrit manuscripts from, xox, 1028.