CXCiV PRELIMINARY ESSAY.
is situated on the east of the River Khamdan. Ibn Khurdadbah says it is the greatest commercial port of China, and abounds in fruit, vegetables, wheat, barley, rice, and sugar-cane.
" KHANJII is, according to the Kanun, one of the gates of China, situated on the river. Ibn Said states that it is the chief of the gates of China, and is fortified with masonry.... To the east of it is the city of TAJAH. Ibn Said adds : Itl is the capital of China where the Baghbfir
their great king resides.
"C YANJII, the residence of their king. The Kanun states that this is the abode of the Faghfûr of China, who is called Tamghaj Khan, and is their Great King, etc. (see supra, p. lii). The Kanun also states that the city of KAZKII in China is greater than the above-named Yanju... . Some who have seen Yanju describe it as in a temperate part of the earth, with gardens and a ruined wall. It is two days from the sea, and between it and Khansa is a distance of five days. Yanju is to the north and west of Khansa, and is smaller in size .2
" ZAITIIN, i.e. Shanju, is a haven of China, and, according to the accounts of merchants who have travelled to those parts, is a city of mark. It is situated on a marine estuary which ships enter from the China Sea. The estuary extends fifteen miles, and there is a river at the head of it. According to some who have seen the place the tide flows (at Zaitun). It is half-a-day from the sea, and the channel by which ships come up from the sea is of fresh water. It is smaller in size than Hamath,3 and has the remains of a wall which was destroyed by the Tartars. The people drink water from the channel and also from wells.4
" KHANSA, i.e. Khanfu. According to some travellers Khanfu is at the present time the greatest port of China, and is that which is made by voyagers from our own country. According to some who have seen it, it is east and south of Zaitun, and is half-a-day from the sea. It is a very large city and lies in a temperate part of the earth. In the middle of the city are some four small hills. The people drink from wells. There are pleasant gardens about it. The mountains are more than two days distant from it."
Between these are narrow channels, through which the ships pass to the
various ports of the Empire, and these passages are called the Gates of China (Reinaud, Relations, i, 19 ; Edrisi, i, 90).
I.e. as I apprehend Tdjah, the Bejah of Jaubert's Edrisi (supra, p. cxiii) Khanju is perhaps Quangcheu or Canton.
2 Yanju is evidently from name and position Yangcheu (see Odoric, p. 123). But it never was the capital of China. I do not know what
Kazku is ; but no doubt the name is corrupt. It is perhaps Fucheu in some form.
3 Hamath was Abulfeda's own city. We may strongly doubt the accuracy of his information as to the comparative size of Zayton.
4 On Zayton or Chincheu see note to Odoric, p. 108, and to Ibn Batuta, p. 486.