burst into Italy.
Charlemagne extinguished the Lombard dukes, and from 0
Friuli for a time was governed the Eastern March of the Frank- 11
ish empire. In the end of the ninth century or thereabouts, the ii
administration of the province fell into the hands of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, whose seat had been at Cividale since 737 ; and in
1029 the Emperor Conrad II formally conferred on the Patriarch â
Poppo the Duchy of Friuli and the Marquisate of Istria.
This ecclesiastical principality continued to exist, with ter- !
ritory of fluctuating extent, until 1420, when the Patriarch,
engaging in war with Venice, lost his temporal dominion, and !~
Friuli became subject to the Republic. It was remarkable as perhaps the only Italian state, excluding Sicily, which possessed a genuine Parliament. This consisted of three Estates, assembling in one house.
Friuli divides naturally into three zones. The first and widest is a great level, subsiding near the Adriatic into swamp, elsewhere well cultivated and fairly productive, but without irriga- tion, and far behind the wealth of the Lombard plain, excepting towards the west, where water lies nearer the surface, the streams have a more perennial character, and there is seen an almost tropical luxuriance of vegetation.
The second zone consists of undulating hills, dotted with white villages, and covered with fine grass carefully reserved for the scythe. The brilliant verdure of these undulating meadows, as seen under a July sun, was alike surprising and delightful. The third zone is that of the mountain country.
The dialect of the Friuli country is a Romance one, said to be very distinct from the Venetian, and to come very near to Provençal. Many of the local names are alleged to be quite French in character, and I remember one, Martignac, which struck me particularly. It may be only a fancy that this quasi-French idiom