Sec. Hi] KHOTAN IN EARLY CHINESE RECORDS 171
and buried under small Stûpas. The mourners cut their hair and lacerated their faces, but abandoned mourning as soon as their hair had once more grown to a length of 4 or 5 inches. The dead king's body alone was not burned, but buried in a coffin at a distant deserted spot, where it was customary to erect a funeral shrine over it and to perform sacrifices at regular periods.
The account of the Pd shih, which is fully reproduced by the Pien i tien for the Northern Wei period, and from which extracts are given again in the notices of the Northern Chou and Sui Annals, is probably to a great extent based, as already stated, upon the notes kept by Hui-shêng, Sung Yün's companion 33. It places, correctly, Yü-t`ien at a distance of 1,500 and 1,000 li from Shan-shan (Lop-Nor) and Chu-chü-po (Karghalik) respectively ; 1,400 li are reckoned northward to Kucha ; while to the south the ` Land of the Women', the Strirajya of Indian legend, is said to be 3,000 li distant. The circuit of the kingdom is estimated at 1,000 li, and that of the capital at eight or nine li. Five large towns and some dozens of smaller places were comprised in it.
The river Shou -a V PT, from which jade was obtained, and which undoubtedly is
meant for the Yurung-kash, flowed at a distance of 30 li to the east of the city of Yü-t`ien. A subsequent passage, manifestly drawn from some other source, gives to this river the names of Shu-chin 10 A 7j( or Chi-shill ä -F A 4, and indicates its distance as 20 li. To the west of the city, at a distance of 15 li, was another great river called Ta-liIj ., which united with the former and also flowed northward. It corresponds, of course, to the Kara-kash, the Yangi Darya branch of which lies actually only a little over three miles to the west of
Yotkan, the site of the ancient capital 34. If we accept the figure of 30 li given in the first
passage the distance to the eastern river is indicated with equal accuracy ; . for the Yurung-kash flows within seven miles from the eastern edge of Yatkan. The distances here recorded are of interest as showing how little in reality the river courses within the oasis have changed during the last thirteen centuries.
The soil of the territory is described as favourable to the five kinds of cereals, as well as to mulberry and hemp. Reference is made to the wealth of the mountains in jade, and to the good breed of horses and camels. Murder alone was punished with death. The customs and products much resembled those of Kucha. Buddhism flourished, and its shrines and monastic establishments abounded. The king was pious above all, and never failed on fast days to clean a sanctuary himself and to make his offerings. The reference to particular shrines and objects of worship which follow we shall have occasion to notice below. The curious remarks which the compiler of the Pei shih adds, perhaps from some other source, about the physical appearance of the people of Yü-t`ien and the defects in their character, have been discussed above at some length 35.
Sung Yün and the Pei shih agree in enumerating Khotan among the numerous states of the Tarim and Oxus basins which, at the time of the former's journey, acknowledged the sovereignty of the White Huns. From a notice of the Annals of the Liang dynasty it may be concluded that this dependence continued during the whole period of the latter (502-556 A.D.) 36.
33 For M. Chavannes' translation, see Voyage de Song Yun, pp. 15 sq. ; for the extracts of the Pien i lien, comp. Rémusat, loc. cit., pp. i8 sqq., 28 sqq.
34 Regarding this eastern branch of the Kara-kâsh, see
below, chap. viii. sec. iii, also p. 179.
as See above, pp. 139, 149.
as Compare Voyage de Song Yun, pp. 26, 24, note 3 ; Chavannes, Turcs occid., p. 224.