Part iv] SGRAFFITI OF ENDERE 569
(literally, are not')—`were seen, it being all right '. He remarks : At first the announcement was made that five caps (or other articles) were lost ; when they were found, the second part of the inscription was added. I' instead of ' reminds us of the West-Tibetan form shnga. Mye is perhaps defective writing
for med. In zigskan the inverted vowel-sign is interesting ; many Ladâkhi rock-carvings also show it. Kan instead of vnk`an may be due to the influence of the preceding s; if the word is pronounced quickly,
a full k` cannot easily be pronounced after s. 7:7 may stand for z:9-5. (spelling of dictionaries), or tr ~•
(modern West-Tibetan), which is always used for "all right" or " in good order ":
Above A are faint traces of some letters, of which rISI may be deciphered. To the right of A and B is a Chinese inscription, and still further to the right are the following sgraffiti, C and D (see Plate XI) :—
The last four syllables are added by a different hand in letters 3 to 4 inches high. The preceding words are in letters of 1 to i inches in height.
Mr. Francke's version is as follows :—
(-611.5f'54Wt* Scrrr4crre 7'Icri.r.aWfalf1(24.2 T94NT
This Mr. Francke renders as follows :-
At Pyagpag [in the] province of Upper o7om lot: this army was outwitted, and a tiger's meal was Obtained ' (i. e. many were killed). [Addition, probably by a different person :—] ' [Now] eat until you are fat !'
Mr. Francke points out that this is apparently a record of a battle, and adds : '1—Poi is very probably the same word as bkol in " Ladakhi Proverbs ", Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. lxix, pt. i. p. 146, no. 44. The orthography of bkol in the proverb is that of the writer of the proverb, who wished to express the deep aspirated guttural sound of ch in the Scottish loch, and wrote bk. The writer of the Endere inscription probably wished to express the same sound when he wrote rk`. The ablative before rk`ol ste is parallel to the ablative with rgyal ba " to conquer". ~•- is West-Tibetan for "food". It is remarkable that a number of West-Tibetan words occur in these inscriptions.'
D. Below the beginning of the second line of C, in letters 2 to 3 inches high.
Mr. Francke gives as the modern equivalent for Ni' 5 the word 45,', and tentatively translates : ` Collect and take pomegranates, [O] Ba/yima ! ' He adds : ` This is very uncertain ; perhaps it was left incomplete.~ may just as well be translated as cherries', figs', or even °roses'. It is used for several kinds of fruit.
From a Tibetan point of view a name like Ba/yima or Bak`yima is hardly possible. It may be incomplete, or not of Tibetan origin. But the ba (= va) may stand for wa " Oh ! " and the name may be Pyima:
Above C may be deciphered the words ,54-.417.ç' , written in large letters ; and beneath D, a little
to the left, appear the words
The seems to have been left unfinished.