Chap. IV] NOTES ON SHEET No. 4 67
occasional floods, permit of cultivation in subsoil drainage supports sufficient vegeta-
small patches. In the basin of Yai-döbe tion for winter grazing of Kirghiz camps.
Astronomically observed latitude.
Tunguzluk, C. 346 (to N.W. of spring; C. 4) 40° 8' 31"
NOTES ON SHEET No. 5 (YANGI-HISSAR, YARKAND)
This sheet embodies the surveys made on a series of routes on all three expeditions. The area surveyed is proportionate to the great extent of cultivated ground to be found within the limits of this sheet. The routes followed in 1900-01 lay mainly within and between the populous districts of Kashgar and Yarkand. 1 Those of 190608 covered ground all along the Yarkand river as well as portions of the hill area in the north-west and south-west corners of the sheet, while on the journey of 1913-15, the new routes surveyed lay chiefly from Kashgar to Maral-bashi and along the right bank of the Yarkand river below Yarkand.
The well-determined positions of Yarkand, Yangi-hissar, Kashgar, Mara1-bashi and Karghalik served as base points for the construction of the sheet. Of these, the last three fall outside its limits and for the observations which fix them reference may be made to the Notes on Sheets Nos. 2, 6 and 8.
For Yarkand the latitude observed in 1900 and 1906 at our quarters of Chini-bagh (about one mile south of the city walls) is supported by the observations of the Yarkand Mission of 1873 and Sir F. De Filippi's expedition of 1914, while the longitude now shown, which is derived from the wireless observation of the latter (77° 15' 46'), differs only by 15 seconds from the one which was adopted in Sheet 11 of our
1906-08 map. For Yangi-hissar the co-
ordinates adopted are those deduced from
Astronomically observed latitudes. 1900-01. Eski, Camp 23 (A. 1)
Yamân-yàr, Camp 24 (A. 2)
1 I have kept the conventional spelling of Yarkand without using the hyphen between the clearly recognizable Farts of the compound name (Ydr-kand, i. e. settlement by the 'Ur ' or eroded ravine).
2 As evidence of Rim Singh's very careful work
the observations of Cay. De Filippi's expedition. For the determination of other positions the latitude observations of 1900-01 and 1906-08, as noted below, have been used, as well as those of Captain H. H. P. Deasy on his route from Kashgar to Yarkand via Khan-artk ; those of Dr. Hedin along the Yarkand river, and others recorded in the Yarkand Mission Report.
In respect of topographical details full advantage was taken of the fact that several of the chief routes in this sheet were surveyed more than once in the course of my three expeditions (see the routes from Kashgar to Karghalik ; from Kizil-dawân to Yarkand ; from Abaci to Kâshgar, etc.). The physical character of the area comprised in the sheet exhibits considerable variety. Besides the compact well-cultivated tracts of the Kashgar, Yangi-hissar, and Yarkand districts and the minor oases between, or near, them we find here a fairly large outlier of the central drift-sand desert around Ordam-padshah and extensive belts of riverine jungle below Faizabad in the north (B-D. 1) and below Abâd in the east (C,D. 2).
For brief descriptive accounts of the routes followed by me, cf. Rnins of Khotan, pp. 133 sqq.; Desert Cathay, i. pp. 126 sqq.; for the early historical topography of the region, see Ancient Khotan, i. pp. 42 sqq., 86 sqq.
39° 33' 59" 39° 25' 17" 39° 16' 1" :39° 7' 49" 38° 55' 34" 38° 39' 20" 38° 32' 39" 38° 25' 40"
I may mention that his plane-table of 1900.01 showed for Yarkand the longitude of 77° 19' 10", a remarkably close spprcach to the true one, considering the small scale used and other circumstances.
Dong-arik, Camp 25 (B. 2; symbol omitted in map) Achchik-bazar, Camp 26 (B. 2) Ordam-pâdshah-mazar, Camp 27 (B. 3)
Kizil-bazar, Camp 29 (half a mile S. of Sarai ; B. 3) Ak-rabat, Camp 111 (B. 3)
Kök-rabat, Camp 30 (beyond S.E. end of village; B. 4)