Sec. ii] THE REMAINS OF KÖH-I-KHWAJA 91I
of a domed central portion and two aisles. The dome of the central portion rests on arches which spring from abutments, measuring 3' 9" by 2' 6". These arches, like the vaultings of the aisles, are built of rows of bricks set on edge, their longer sides lying along the curvature of the arch. As in the Western type of true arch there is a keystone. Masonry courses rising to 12 feet above the top of the arches form an oblong, and this by means of squinches in the corners is reduced to an octagon ; on this rests the dome, with four openings, much broken, for admitting light. The two aisles, which have a length of Ioi feet and a width of 5' 8", carry barrel vaults, which above the longer side have an apsidal ending (Fig. 471). Recesses, 4 feet wide, are placed in the wall at both shorter ends. A narrow plinth runs along all wall portions at a height of about 9' 6" from the floor, and above it are arranged series of niches, about 15" deep and 22' high, three along the longer side and two above the recess on the shorter sides. In the better preserved of the 14 niches there could be traced plaster bases about 8" high and Io" deep. The height of the niches above the floor seems to preclude any other use of these bases than to carry small images. But no remains of such could be traced when the refuse covering the ground was cleared in two of the corners, the only finds being fragments of turquoise-glazed pottery and of some textiles in wool and silk.5
From this hall a narrow passage leads to an open quadrangle of imposing size. It is enclosed on three sides by the much-decayed walls of large vaulted apartments, and on the fourth, on rising ground, by a high terrace supported by buttresses and bearing more structures on its top. The buildings on the two longer sides of the quadrangle may well have had two stories ; but their walls are badly decayed, and owing to the debris filling the ruins only the roughest sketch of their disposition was practicable in the plan Pl. 53. A better idea of them can be gained from the photographs (Figs. 456, 457), which show the whole complex of ruins in the upper portion of the walled area as seen from the slope of the hill behind. The high detached masses of masonry on either side facing each other (see also Fig. 464) form a curious feature. Their slope towards the court is too steep to suppose that they could have carried stairs, and the idea suggests itself that they might be later additions meant to buttress structures behind. The great dimensions of several apartments, especially on the north-eastern side, where two, c and d, measure not less than about 79 feet by 16 and 42 feet by 26, clearly show that accommodation for large numbers was intended. But there is nothing in the structure to indicate whether such accommodation was needed for the fortified seat of a chief or perhaps to meet the requirements of a populous sacred establishment.
The terrace forming the north-western side of the quadrangle rises some 20 feet above the level of the latter. Buttress walls divided by narrow vaulted recesses in two stories (Figs. 458, 463) have been built to support it and counteract the outward thrust of the structures built above. The irregular arrangement of these buttresses at once suggested successive repairs and alterations, and an interesting discovery behind the outer masonry of one of the buttresses subsequently confirmed this. From one of the vaulted recesses, e, a passage now blocked by debris appears to have given access to the vaulted galleries which carried the terrace in front of the structures occupying
5 Gha. ii. or. Fr. of wall of pottery vessel. I-iandmade ; pale terra-cotta ; prob. from large bowl. Glazed inside turquoise, and painted blue-black, a spiral with three leaf-shaped brush-marks outside. 3$"X 5"X i". Pl. CXVIII.
Gha. ii. 02. Fr. of wall of pottery vessel (bowl?), pale red. Glazed inside turquoise with broad black brush stroke. Glaze mostly flaked off. 3"x 24" X I".
Gha. ii. 03. Fr. of strong woollen (?) fabric; prob. from shoe sole. Plaited in such a manner as to form longitudinal ribs at intervals. 4"X 3".
Gha. ii. 04-7. Frs. of woollen textiles and yarn.
04, strip of pale blue plain cloth. 6"x I". 0g, bunch of thin woollen yarn, white. 06, frs. of fishing (?) net of 4" mesh ; stained brown, prob. from use. 07, small fr. of woollen felt, encrusted with mud.
Gha. ii. o8. Fr. of silk cloth. Plain weave in coloured stripes ; pairs of dull brown lines with buff between each pair. In space of g" between pairs, a central band of pale pink, and band of pale blue on each side. C. 4"X II".
Gha. ii. 09. Fr. of pottery vessel. Wheel (?)made ; terra-cotta. Glazed dark turquoise inside. 2"x