Khandut village, Hsüan-tsang's Hun-6)- to, 866 ; Buddhist sanctuary, 866. Khara-khoto, ` black town ', 437 sqq. ; impressive appearance of walls, 437 ; situation of, 437 ; circumvallation, 438 ; gates, 438 ; cuttings in wall, possibly due to treasure-seekers, 439. Written documents among refuse, 44o ; documents of Hsi-hsia and Mongol periods, 44o sq. ; numismatic evidence of date, 441 ; miscellaneous finds, 441.
remains of shrine K.K. i, 442 ; similarity of sculptured ornament to that of Ming-oi' shrines, 442 ; fragments of faience from roof, 443 ; corn-pared with faience frs. from So-yangch`êng, 443.
ruined temple K.K. ii, 443 ; remains of Stüpas, 444 ; ruined Stüpas outside town, 445 ; votive deposit of manuscripts, 446.
ruined shrine K.K. II, 446 sqq. ; Hsi-hsia, Tibetan and Chinese texts,
449 ; remains of stucco sculptures
and wall-painting, 45o ; silk paintings,
450 ; book illustrations by block-print and drawings, 451; chronological limits of deposit, A.D. 1032-1226, 45r.
Muhammadan Gumbaz', antiquity of, 451 ; Stüpa of non-Tibetan type, 453.
Physical features of land to NE., 454 ;. ruined remains of Chinese agricultural settlement, 454 ; miscellaneous ceramic finds, 456 ; identification of, with Marco Polo's ` City of Etzina', 456 ; last place for obtaining supplies on route to Kara-korum, 457 ; abandonment of, 458, 459 ; local story of its destruction, 458 ; alleged diversion of river, 459 ; diminution of water-supply probable cause of abandonment, 459.
list of antiques from, 462 sqq. ; coins from, 441, 992.
Khara-nôr, lake, as ` wet border ' re-
placing wall of Limes, 344, 346. Khara-tsian-tsium, alleged last king of
Khargird, oasis and village, ruins at, 899. Khargosh pass, routes from, 862.
Kharosthi documents : on wooden tablets, (Niya) 146, 147, 149, 154 ; (Lou-Ian) 194, 201, 216, 222 sqq. ; (Yingp`an) 751, 758 ; on paper, (Lou-lan) 195, 203 ; on silk bag, (Lou-lan) 216, 223.
Khàruk, head - quarters of Russian ` Pamir Division ', 878, 879 n. 6. Khingab valley. 89o.
Khitai-bazar, ancient site (Kucha), remains of Buddhist shrine, 82o ; manuscripts from, 1028.
Khitai-shahri (Kuchâ), ancient site : Afraz-gul's report on, 82o ; circumvallation, 82o ; pottery similar to that
from Lou-lan sites, 821, 824 ; pottery of, 1015.
Khitai-shahri (E. of Kalta-yailak), site, ruins of, 72.
Kho or Kuh, tract of Yasin, 4o.
Khora-bohrt pass, 5o.
Khorasan, eastern marches of, 897 sqq. ; memories of Turkish raids, 897.
Khotan, town and district, 98 ; antiques collected at, 98 sq., 109, 1052 ; coins from, 99, 988; manuscripts from, 1023, 1026 sq.
Khotan river, new terminal course of, 91. Khu. = Khurumak, objects found at, 902.
Khunik, ruined fort B near, pottery frs. collected at, 938, 942.
Khurumak, debris area near, 901 ; objects collected from, 901 sq.
Khushwaqt family, rulers in Mastnj and Yasin, 38, 43, 44.
Kichik Beg, meeting with, 64.
KING, Major F. J. M., Survey of India, help of, ix.
Kinno-kôt, ruined dwellings, 13 ; Buddhist rock-markings, 14 ; specimen of pottery from, 29.
Kirghiz, pastoral nomads of Pamirs : physical anthropology, 996 sqq., 1003 ; in Kara-tâsh valley, 62 ; raids on Maral-bashi, 74 ; in Alai valley, 846, 847 ; on Pamirs, 851 sq., 858, 882 ; ousted from Kara-tegin by Tàjiks, 892.
kisek, lumps of clay : mounds of, marking Muhammadan graves, 752. See also wall construction.
Kishanganga river, 3 ; Albèrûni's Mahwi, 7.
kite, with long tail, incised on mousetrap, 15o.
K`iu dynasty, kings of Kao-tch`ang: chronology of, 986 ; nien-haos of, 987. See Chü.
Kiz-kurghan, fortress, 55.
Kizil, Mingoi of, 83o.
Kizil, river, irrigates Bugur, 792.
Kizil-art, river and pass, 845.
Kizil-bèl saddle, named from red sandstone cliffs, 852.
Kizil-shahr, see Shahidlar.
Kizil-Yar, Khotan site, objects from, 123.
Kizil-ziârat, cultivation area, 91.
KLEMENTZ, Dr., his visit to Turfan, 566,
613, 614 ; on Yar-khoto, 713 n. 3. knife, in wooden sheath, Toyuk, 615,
622. See also bronze, iron, stone. K`o-han fou-t`u, or Kagan-stùpa, name
of Pei-t`ing in Hsüan-tsa:.g's Life, 556,
Kôh-i-kwâja, hill of : remains, 909 sqq. ; identified with Mount Ushidhâo of Avesta, 923 ; ruins of Ghagha-shahr, q. v. ; ruins of Kok-i-7,11, 921 ; fort of Chihil-dukhtarân, 922 ; sanctity of,
922, 923 ; graveyards with tombs above ground, 923 ; remains of quarries, 923.
K`o-to lo, Hsüan-tsang's, identified with Khottal, 893.
Kochatlik, ford of Khotan river, 91. Kodai-daryà, canal, 83.
Kohmâri, convent at, mentioned by Hsüan-tsang, loo ; antiques from, I00.
Kök-dawan, saddle in N. Kuruk-tàgh,
Kök-ula, hill chain, 430.
Kökan Beg, headman of Kirghiz, at Kara-chim, 852.
Kömêdoi, mountains of the, in Ptolemy, identified with Kara-tegin, 849 ; name survives as Chü-mi-t`o or Kumédh,
Konche-darya : ancient connexion of, with ` Dry River ', 761 ; course of, described, 763 ; volume of water, 763 n. I I ; little affected by seasonal variations, 763 ; bed interlacing with Tarim, 763 ; likelihood of ancient connexion with Tarim, 764 ; reconnaissance of ground between Konche-darya and Kuruk-darya, 766 sq. ; changes of river-bed, 766 ; width of, 774.
Kbne-shahr, ` Tati ' area near Charchan, occupied in Muhammadan times, 158.
` Kongurchak ', desert scrub, 316.
Koxow, Professor Sten, help rendered by, xvii ; ` Inventory List of Manuscripts ', App. F, 1026 sqq.
Korla, 768 sqq. ; irrigation resources of,
786 ; increasing population, 786.
roads meeting at Korla : Korla-
Charkhlik road, importance of, 778. Korla-Ying-p`an road, 768 sqq. :
Y. 1, watch-station, 768 ; construction of tower similar to those on Limes, 769, 771 ; arrangement of loopholes, 769 ; walls of enclosure, 769 ; relics of later occupation, 77o ; period
of construction, 77o. •
Y. iI, ruined watch-tower, similar to those on Limes, 771, 772 ; relics from ancient refuse, 772 ; revetment of platform, 772.
Y. nI, watch-tower, massive construction of, 773.
Y. Iv, ruined tower, 773 ; finds in, 774.
Y. v, remains of tower, 774.
Y. vi, post of Gherilghan, 775.
Y. VII, watch-tower of Sanje, inner core of clay, enlarged with brickwork, 775 ; find of leather armour scales, 776.
Y. VIII, ruined post of Yar-karaul, 776.
Y. ix, ruined station of Suget-bulak, 781.
watch-towers guarding ancient route, similar to those of Tun-huang