The system followed in the transcription of Sanskrit and other Indian as well as of Persian, Turki, and Arabic words closely agrees with that approved by the International Congress of Orientalists in 1894. In the case of local names, no attempt has been made to restore the original forms of any Persian or Arabic elements contained in them or to systematize the spelling of such Turk! words as enter into their composition, but the actual forms heard on the spot have been reproduced both in text and maps in a simplified form of phonetic transcription as adopted for cartographical use by the Survey of India. The spelling of Chinese names and terms conforms to the Wade system of transliteration (as adopted in Professor A. H. Giles's Chinese-English Dictionary), except in Appendix A, where M. Maspero has followed the system adopted by the École Française d'Extrême-Orient. Where discrepancies have occurred in transcription, the Index is to be taken as a criterion.
The first occasion on which a Chinese word is given in the original characters is indicated in the Index by printing the number of the page in italics. Page numbers in heavy type indicate the principal passages where subjects frequently referred to have been discussed.
A. = site A. Sarbishah, objects from, 942. A.K. = Adûna-köra, q. v.
A-to-to, king of Posterior Chü-shih, attacks Chü-ku, 574.
A-nuyüeh, Chinese capital of Little P`olü, located at Ydsin, 37.
A-o, territory, in Han Annals, 542. A-shih-na, Turkish general of Ch`ü Wênt`ai, 577•
Ab-i-garm, basin of, 892.
Ab-i-Panja, main branch of Oxus, 863 ; valley of, 862, 871 ; routes leading to, 861.
Abdal, on the Tarim, main Loplik settle-
ment ; abandonment of, 170, 180. Abdul Niaz, headman of Atüruk, his
flocks and herds, 536.
Abdulmalik, brother of Abdurrahim, guide, 742, 749.
Abdurrahim, Dr. Hedin's guide, 269 sqq., 722 sqq. ; his experience of Kuruk-tagh, 272 ; on Mongol migrations, 319.
Abhaya-mudrâ, gesture of protection : Buddha figures in, 120, 131, 134, 135, 136, 154. See also Buddha, Bodhisattva.
Acha-dong, hillock, 90.
Achal, pass south of Beltagh ; Tati remains at, 78.
Achchik-bulak, salt spring, 72o.
Achchik-kuduk, camping place east of Bosh-toghrak, 332.
Adak, settlement N. of Karlik-tagh, 533. Adüde pass, 888.
Aduna-kora, ruined fort in Etsin-gol delta: occupation down to Sung times indicated by coins and pottery, 436 ; list of objects found at, 462 ; pottery, 1014.
Afrasiah site, Alexander's Maracanda, ancient capital of Sogdiana, 895.
Afraz-gul Khan, Mian, surveyor, valuable work of, viii sqq., 2 ; surveying work, 197, 214, 218, 26o, 312, 633, 742 sqq.,
786, 819 ; admitted to service of Indian Survey Department, 980.
agate, frs. (Khotan), 115. See beads, rings, seals, &c.
agger (ancient embankment). See Limes. Aghrak, old site between Korla and
Bughur, 789 ; old enclosure, and
Muhammadan cemetery, 791.
agricultural colonies : (Achma) 131 ; (Kara-khan) 131 ; (Tülküch-köl-târim) 14o ; (Khara-khoto) 455 ; (Tien-shan) 553, 558 ; Chinese, (Wei-li) 778 ; in. riverine tracts, 82o ; instability of new settlers, 780.
Aidin-köl, salt marsh, 719.
aiwcin, hall lit from roof in Röshan houses, 886 sq.
Ak-bash Khan, ruined town of, 65. Ak-kul, lake, 5o.
Ak-shahr (Kucha), circumvallations at, 819.
Ak-su, oasis and district : Chinese notices of, 835 sq. ; irrigation resources of, 836 ; route to Maral-bàshi, 835 sq. ; to Kash-gar, 838 sq., 877 sq. ; to Anhsi, 817.
ak-su, ` white water ', flood from melting snow and ice, 54, 128, 792. See also kara-su.
Ak-tam, ruins at, ?91 ; remains of Buddhist sanctuary, 792.
Ak-terek, Khotan site, 99.
Ak-tiken, antiques from, 99 n. 5.
Ak-tiken-shahi, ruined post SW. of Kuchâ2 809.
Akh. = Akhur-i-Rustam, q. v.
Akhtur-bazar, ruins at, 65.
Akhur, ` manger ', name for circular enclosures in Sistàn, 929. See also Duldui-ökür.
Akhur-i-Rustam, ruined site, 944 ; prehistoric and early pottery remains, 945 ; list of objects from, 959.
alabaster vessels, frs. of, (Sistàn) 951,
952, 961, 963, 968, 969, 97o.
Alai valley route : historical interest of, 846 ; passage of, 846 ; signs of old cultivation, 847 ; natural highway between Middle Oxus and Tarim basin, 847conditions of grazing in, 847 ; facilities of traffic, 848 ; importance of, for silk trade, 848.
Alam-khöja-köl, dried-up lagoon, 181. Albêrüni, his notice of Childs, 7.
Alexander the Great, march through Sistàn, 906.
Alichur Pamir, 856 sq. ; route to Yeshilköl, 856.
ALLAN, Mr. J., British Museum, help given by, xix, 988 sqq. ; reading of coin inscriptions, 948.
alluvial deposit (Muz-art-darya), 804. almond, as ornament (stucco relief), 623.
Altmish-bulak, springs and reed-beds of, 278, 743 ; no vestiges of antiquity, 281 ; route from to L.I., 283 sqq.
An-chou, brother of Wu-hui, annexes Turfân and Chiao-ho, 575 ; killed by the Juan-juan, 576.
An-hsi, Protectorate of, established at C-hiao-ho, A.D. 540 ; transferred to Kuehl, A.D. 658, S78 ; its. ` Four Garrisons ' overrun by Tibetans, 579.
An-hsi, oasis : Limes line W. of, 362 sqq. ; ancient Kua-chou, 371.
An-hsi, Chinese name of Kucha, 817 ;
Chinese itinerary to Ak-su, 817. ANDERSON, Dr. J. C., discoveries of, in
Ho-nan and Kan-su, 955.
ANDREWS, Mr. F. H., O.B.E. : help given by, xiv sqq. ; on Chinese figured silks, 187, 193, 232 sq., 393 ; on silks from Astana, 655, 673 sqq. ; on woollen fabrics of Ying-p`an, 751 ; on mural paintings of Ghaga-shahr, 914, 920 ; on pottery of Sistàn, 901, 910, 926 sqq., 955 ; note on prehistoric and later pottery of Sistàn and neighbouring sites, 957 sqq. ; ` De-