NOTE ON THE PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF
THE PAMIRS AND OXUS BASIN
T. A. JOYCE, M.A.
DEPUTY KEEPER, BRITISH MUSEUM, VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
THE physical measurements on which the following note is based were collected by Sir Aurel Stein on his third archaeological expedition to Central Asia in 1915. They constitute an extremely valuable supplement to the series which he obtained on his second expedition, in 1906-8, in the Eastern Pamirs and Chinese Turkestan. Sir Aurel allowed me the privilege of examining the data obtained on this earlier expedition, and the result was a paper, published in vol. xlii of the ,journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1912), entitled ` Notes on the Physical Anthropology of Chinese Turkestan and the Pamirs '. This paper was subsequently reprinted, with additional tables, as an appendix to Serindia (Oxford University Press, 1921), by permission of the Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
As implied above, the following note is supplementary to that just mentioned. The measurements recorded by Sir Aurel on his last journey not only shed fresh light on the physical characters of the Wakhi and Kirghiz, but carry his survey westward, to the secluded valleys on the right bank of the Ab-i-Panja and to the regions of Karategin and I3okhara ; further, they include important information concerning the populations of the terminal waters of the Helmand river, Sistani and Sayad, and also the neighbouring Biloch.
The measurements and other observations recorded, and the method which I have employed in dealing with them, are precisely the same as I have described in detail in my previous paper. I will, therefore, content myself with this reference in order to save space. But I should like to add that the Differential Index ', which I employed in the previous calculations, has again proved to be of very great value, though, I admit, the labour involved in its calculation for so many tribal groups is almost prohibitive.
Sir Aurel obtained measurements of the following groups :
(I) Kirghiz ; pastoral nomads of the Pamirs ; of Mongolo-Turki stock ; see Figs. 365, 439.
(s) Özbeg ; another Turki-speaking pastoral people, the latest invaders of the Samarkand-Bokhara tract.
Tajik ; of Persian speech, in the valleys and oases of Bokhara territory.
Karategin ; migrants of, presumably, Tajik stock from the lower valleys towards the Oxus, who are gradually pressing back the semi-nomadic, semi-agricultural tribes of Turki stock in the upper valley of the Kizil-su (Surkh-ab), the latter being probably allied to the Özbeg.
Darwazi and (6) Wanji ; a Sunni people, who now speak the Persian of the Tajik, occupying the region between the Karategin and the great northern bend of the Ab-i-Panja ; see Fig. 446.
(7) Yazgulami, (8) Roshani, (9) Shughnani, and (Pp) Ishkashmi ; the Iranian-speaking populations of the secluded valleys running eastward from the right bank of Ab-i-Panja above its great northern bend ; see Figs. 366, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445.
(II) Wakhi of Wakhan, on the south bank of the Ab-i-Panja east of the Ishkashmi, who speak a dialect allied to that of the Shughnani and Roshani ; see Fig. 440.
(I2) Sistani and (13) Sayad in the terminal basin of the Helmand river. The Sistani are obviously compounded of very mixed elements ; but the Sayad are a shy, primitive tribe of fishers and hunters, whose