whose kindness to the mission is commemorated in the martyrology, and who would thus appear to be Jinkshi rather than Butan. As Nicholas was named Archbishop late in 1333, the date of his being at Almalig was probably 1335 or 1336. There is, under these circumstances, nothing inconsistent with the revolt and success of Ali Sultan taking place in 1338 or 1339, or with his being slain soon afterwards, as the ecclesiastical story tells ; though there remain some minor discrepancies.
It may be added that we have the positive statement of Friar Pascal in the letter here translated, that when he arrived on the frontiers of Chagatai, the emperor thereof had lately been slain by his natural brother. The letter is dated August 10th, 1338, and the event in question, which might have occurred from half a year to a year earlier, must have been, it seems to me, the dethronement of Jinkshi by Yesontimur. We shall then have the data afforded by Ibn Batuta, the Pope's letter, the ecclesiastical story of the martyrdom, and Pascal's own letter, all quite consistent with one another, though all inconsistent with the accepted historians. The succession of sovereigns will then run :-
Ilchikdai dies probably about ... 1327.
Tarmeshirin Khan dethroned by Butan 1334.
Butan „ by Jinkshi ... 1335.
Jinkshi „ by Yesuntimur, 1337.
Yesuntimur „ by All Sultan, 1338-9.
Ali Sultan „ by Kazan ... 1339-40.
And this Kazan was no doubt reigning when Marignolli was so well treated at Almalig.1
Another piece inserted in this part of our collection is a short account of " The Estate and Governance of the Grand Caan" (i.e., of the Empire of Cathay under the Mongols), which was written in Latin by a certain Archbishop of Soltania under instructions from Pope John XXII. I have not been able to hear of a copy of this Latin original, but at an early date the work was done into French by that diligent Long John of Yprès who wrought so largely in that way, and seems to be the true prototype of all the Ramusios, Hakluyts, and Purchases. Of this
1 See Marignolli, infra.