4 EXPLORATIONS IN TURKESTAN.
the work. Prince Hilkof's orders obtained for us the continuous use of a car
throughout our stay in Turkestan.
While I became deeply indebted to the general hospitality of all with whom we came in contact, I am under special obligations to several gentlemen to whose ready assistance the expedition owes much of its success. From their excellencies Count Cassini and the Hon. Joseph H. Choate, Assistant Secretary of State Mr. Herbert Pierce, and Baron von Richthofen I received valuable letters to St. Petersburg. There, from His Excellency Mr. Semenof, vice-president of the Imperial Geographical Society, I had letters of great importance to high authorities in Turkestan, as well as from Generals Stubendorf and Artemonof. Valuable assistance was rendered by Mr. McCormick, our ambassador, and Mr. Ridler, secretary of the embassy.
Their Excellencies Prince Hilkof, Minister of Ways and Communications ; Mr. Plehve, Minister of the Interior, and Mr. Yermolof, Minister of Agriculture, gave nie circular letters to all the employees of their departments ; while from the office of the Minister of War, who has control of Turkestan, orders were telegraphed to extend any desired aid to the members of the expedition. My plans were also cordially furthered by the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, which passed a resolution asking the Minister of the Interior to facilitate our journey ; by Mr. Karpinsky, then director of the Imperial Geological Survey ; Professor Schmidt, and Mr. Bogdanovitch, and by Mr. Tchernachef, now director of the Imperial Geological Survey.
In Turkestan we enjoyed the hospitality and assistance of their Excellencies the Governor-General and Madame Ivanof ; General Medinsky, governor of Sainarkand; General Nalifkin, vice-governor of Fergana, and Madam Nalifkin; General Ussakovsky, governor of Transcaspia ; Colonel and Madame Volkovnikof, local governor of Krasnovodsk ; Colonel Kukol-Yasnopolski, governor of Askhabad ; General Ulianin, director of the Trans-Caspian railway ; General Poslovsky, General Gedeonof, and Colonel Poulovtsoff. I owe the success of our Pamir expedition largely to the active interest and help of Colonel Zaitza, governor of Osh. To Baron Cherkasof, political agent at Bokhara, I owe much for his kindness during my visit to that place. At Old Mery we were entertained with great hospitality by Mr. Dubosof, superintendent of the Imperial estate.
Using the railroad as a base and having horses and escorts wherever needed, we made flying excursions to many points, at different distances from the railroad, both in going and coming.
From Askhabad we made an excursion across the mountains of Khorassan into Persia, accompanied by Mr. Yanchevetzki, the secretary of the governor, and his intimate acquaintance with the water problems and with the country from the Aral south was of great use to us. On our return to Askhabad we were joined by Mr. Richard Norton, who accompanied me throughout the journey.
The next stop was at Old Merv, where we spent several days among the extensive ruins. Thence, passing by Bokhara, and making only a preliminary visit to Samarkand, we went to Tashkent, the residence of the governor-general of Turkestan. Here the party divided, Professor Davis and Mr. Huntington going eastward