EXPLORATIONS IN TURKESTAN.
alternate with layers rich in gray ashes and charcoal, and others of closely matted fragments of pottery. Animal bones, teeth, and jaws, some of which are partially calcined, occur frequently in all layers, with a few human bones and skulls. Several whole vases and muffle-shaped chests, made of coarse pottery mixed with dung, had been cut by the trench. These appeared to contain only fine ashes and charcoal. Most of the fragmentary pottery is of this coarse quality, but there are also, even at the bottom of the trench, many fragments of finer texture, decorated with
— 138ft. —Clay walls over
Apparent level of Plain
Fig. I.—Section of the Trenched Tumulus at Anau.
simple designs of black on red. We found several granite stones with curved-plane surface, which had evidently been shaped for mealing grain by the metate method, and also a roughly spherical stone, which had apparently been pierced for the insertion of a handle, then to be used as a maul. The whole character of the tumulus shows that it grew from the plain upwards, as a slow accumulation of the débris of long occupation. The fact that the layers, even at the top, extend horizontally to the edges proves that it was formerly flat-topped and much larger, for had it during occupation ever assumed a spherical surface the growth would have
Fig. 2.—The Trench in the Anau Tumulus.
Fig. 3.—The Maul in the Anau Tumulus.
been in concentric layers. The sanie reasoning would show that it was never abandoned for a long time and again occupied. Since its surface has not been gullied, it seems possible that it was shaped by wind action, although the earth is somewhat firmly cemented. General Komorof found one celt of quartzite and some needles of bone, but absolutely no metal. Of the bones, I sent a representative collection to Professor Zittel, in Munich, for determination.
One peculiar feature in the structure is the interruption and bending over of the layers at the two apparent earth walls. (Fig. 5.)