136 EXPLORATIONS IN TURKESTAN.
trough, into which the foremost part of the glacier projected. A few hundred feet in front there lay fresh piles of till dropped on the moraine floor and in the small trough. These last moraines were in no case nearer than several hundred feet to to the glacier, which was in all cases terminated by glistening walls of ice. All the ice flows were disproportionately narrow in comparison to the width of the troughs containing them. We also saw, from a greater distance, many smaller glaciers on the Trans-Alai. None of those examined reached lower than about 13,000 feet.
The largest glacier was that corning down from the middle of the Mount Kaufmann mass. The glacier I did not visit, but had a splendid view of it from high up on a moraine some 2 miles in front. It draws its ice from a group of several large amphitheaters, some of which collect ice sliding over their walls from smaller cirques above. Just east of this there is another glacier nearly as large as this and which evidently formed, at one time, a branch of the great one. Both glaciers have
Terraces of outer trough bottom - Inner trough bottom ---
o;a'~ -~- b'wQ,a:
'~.>i•Ö; ó: A'.
These sections are idealized
Scale : I inch horizontal = 4 versts ; r inch vertical = i,000 feet.
Fig. 99.—Profile to show moraines and terraces of the Kizil-Art Valley.
now retreated back of the point of former union. Perhaps the two most striking features of the glacier were, first, the lack of visible débris on its clean white ice flow ; second the remarkably free character of its sparkling ice front, the entire depth and breadth of which could be seen by an observer a mile or two in front and several hundred feet below.
IN THE KIZIL-ART VALLEY.
The observations in this valley are best stated in the order beginning with the source of the stream. The valley is, for the most part, carved in highly tilted, soft, partially decomposed red gypsiferous rocks, alternating with medium hard red sandstones and blue-gray slates. No granite or other hard rocks were seen except in