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0028 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 28 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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12   8. ACRE

see «Negodar») and Täküdär (or Tägüdär) ; Muhammad-khan QAzwÎNI gives strong arguments in

favour of Tägüdär (cf. his edition of Juwaini I, XLIII and.l.;), which is the form used in 1307 by Hethum (« Tagodar » in Hist. des Crois., Arm., H , 185 ; see also « Caraunas ») . Abaya had named his son Aryun (see «Argon' ») as his successor, but Aryun had to wait before he could vindicate his rights. The fight then began, continuing with varying fortunes, as in Polo's account, and ended in Ahmad's murder. The « very great and beautiful plain » of Vol. I, 458, is Aq-1 ö ah, to the east of Qazwin. Abmad reigned from May 6, 1282, to Aug. 10, 1284. In Y, II, 474, Aryun, seeing Abmad prisoner, is made to exclaim «Morio», a word used by the Mongols when successful in archery competitions ; but Hal, I, 358, actually gives «Mordio» ; without the Arabic spelling, I dare not attempt an explanation.

The names of Abmad appear as «Tangodar» (variant «Tagodar»), « Nicole » and (wrongly) «Mahomet Can» in Hethum the historian (Hist. des Crois., Arm., II, 185, 312). Vardan and Steph. Orbelian write «Takudar» (PATKANOV, Istoriya Mongolov, I, 25, 49). The Latin translation of Aryun's letter of 1285 to Honorius IV gives «Ameto » (CHABOT, Hist. de Mar Jabalaha III, 190). On Abmad's tomb (?) at Kagan, cf. TP, 1930, 439, and see here « Caraunas ».

As to the names Nägüdär and Tägüdär, I have not yet found any Nägüdär in Mongol or

Chinese texts ; but a Salji'ut6 t   9 T'ieh-ku-tieh-êrh is mentioned in T'u Chi, 41, 6 a, from
an inscription (he does not appear in the corresponding biography of YS), and from this Chinese transcription, we know for certain that the correct form is Tägüdär, in agreement with Hethum's «Tagodar », and not «Täküdär» as has been generally assumed.

Abmad-Tägüdär seems to have been brought up in Mongolia (see « Caraunas ») ; in such a case, his baptism, if he really was baptized in his youth, must have taken place there.


acchon, achon LT   acon L, P, P5; G   acri F, L, TA', TA3

accon Z   acre FA, FB, L, 0, VB, VL ;   agri LT

achre VA   R   anchona V

«Acre» is the French form, «Acri» the Italian, «Achon» the Latin. The name already occurs in the Bible as 'Akko (Judges , I, 31) ; it is 'Akka in Arabic. I have preferred the French form, since we admit that Polo's book was written by Rustichello in French, and we have retained all Western names in French forms.

Acre, or Saint-Jean d'Acre, often called Ptolemais, conquered by the Crusaders on May 26, 1104, was for almost two centuries the main port of landing for the « passage » to the Holy Land. It fell again into the hands of the Mussulmans on May 28, 1291.