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0398 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 398 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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382   161. CIORCIA

form of 0. juan, the phonetic of which is precisely juan. But FRANKE (Gesch. des chines. Reiches, iii, 283-284) has since dissented from my view, so that I must return to that point.

The name of the Avars occurs in Chinese texts in several forms, some southern, some northern (in the fifth and sixth centuries, China was divided between northern dynasties of nomadic origin and those which were purely Chinese in the south). The southern forms are µ7 F Jui-jui (Nziwät-nziwät; in Sung shu, 95; Nan-Ch'i shu, 59; Liang shu, 54; I shall revert to the ancient pronunciation of Jui-jui later) in the fifth century and first part of the sixth, and -4p gip" Ju-ju (*Nziwo-nziwo) in the second half of the sixth century (Chou shu, 50, 1 a; Sui shu, 83, 3 a; 84, 1 a; but at the beginning of the paragraph in Sui shu, 83, 3 a, the « northern » form Juan-juan also occurs once, no doubt because the authors of the Sui shu drew there from a northern source; the T'ung tien, 196, 5 a, is mistaken when it attributes to the Sui shu the same form Jui-jui which occurs in the Sung shu and the Nan-Ch'i shu; this error has passed into the T'ai-p'ing huan-yii chi, 93, 9 b). Chêng Ch'iao (1104[?]-1162) cites in his T'ung chih (28, 8 a), as occurring in ch. 113 of the Wei shu, a sentence saying that « when the Juan-juan entered China, they took the surname dip Ju »; this would imply that, before the shortlived Chou dynasty reigned in the south, the name Ju, as a shortened form of Ju-ju, was already given to the Juan-juan among the northern Wei. But there is in fact no such passage in the Wei shu, which only says (113, 21 a) that the Wei clan-name t rl P'u-lou-ju was changed to Ju; it must have been a slip of Chêng Ch'iao, who also quoted this second passage, to attribute the same origin to the first, which was probably drawn from the Yüan-ho hsing-tsuan (written c. A. D. 800). Apart from men with the surname Ju who were of Wei origin, this surname has also been borne by families of pure Chinese descent, and no man of a Ju clan has hitherto been shown with certainty to have belonged to the Juan-juan stock. But the case is different with the double surname Ju-ju; it certainly represents the form Ju-ju of the name of the Juan-juan which is given in the Chou shu and the Sui shu. According to the T'ung chih, 29, 4 a, Ju-ju existed already under the northern Wei as a surname borne by Juan-juan people who had sought refuge in China after the Juan-juan empire had been destroyed by the T'u-chüeh (Turks), i. e. not earlier than 555, or two years before the northern Chou ascended the throne in 557. Chêng Ch'iao mentions a member of the Ju-ju clan who, he says, held office under the Wei, but that man seems to have been known only from a document concerning one of his grandsons who was in office in the seventh century, and naturally this grandson spoke of his grandfather under the name by which the latter had become known in later years. The only other member of the Ju-ju clan I can trace lived under the Sui (Sui shu, 45, 8 a). On the Ju and Juju clan-names, cf. T'u-shu chi-ch'êng, Shih-tsu-tien, 63 and 565; CHANG Shu's Hsing-shih hsiin yüan, 6, 14; CH'ÊN I's Wei shu kuan-shih-chih shu-chêng, ff. 25-26 of my ms. copy. In the works of the northern dynasties (Wei shu, 103, 1 a; Pei shih, 98), we read that these people called themselves

ti Jou-jan (*Nziau-nziän; WATTER'S transcription « Niu-yen », on Yuan-Chwang's Travels, t, 79, is without foundation; cf. BEFEO, v, 442), but that Shih-tsu (or T'ai-wu-ti, i. e. the Wei Emperor T'o-pa Tao, 424-452), finding that « they were ignorant and looked like worms'» (j; ch'ung, which means « worms », but also « animals » in general), changed their name to fJai

Juan-juan (*Niiwän-nziwän; in the T'ang period another pronunciation of g was *nziuén,