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0263 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 263 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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143. CIAGANNOR   247

his facsimile map (after p. 132) and also by RUGE (HALLBERG, 150). It was equated with Hsi-an-fu by BUCHON, and this has been repeated by HALLBERG; but the identification, based on phonetic analogy, is valueless since the name Hsi-an-fu did not exist in Polo's time, and the city was then known as « Quengianfu » (q. v.). In the meantime, CORDIER, whose facsimile map gives «Cinganar », had said that this « Cinganar » was Polo's « Ciagannor » (L'Extrême-Orient dans l'Atlas Catalan, 20). I do not think that CORDIER was right. Although I cannot identify « Cinganor » or «Cinganar », the location seems to be too southern for « Ciagannor ». Moreover, CORDIER left out of account a name «Ciagamor », the location of which fits « Ciagannor » much better and which was already identified with «Ciagannor» by BUCHON (cf. BUCHON's map after p. 132, and the text p. 134; RUGE reads « Ciaganor »; cf. HALLBERG, 173).

The name Cayân-nôr is fairly common (nine Cayàn-nôr are listed in the Index to PoPov,

Mên-gu-yu-mu-czi, 73), and in Mongol times we find a Cayân-nôr (« 1ayân-nàûr ») as far away as Persia (Oh, III, 415). Two Z`ayân-nôr are mentioned in North China in Polo's time. One, where the prince Ananda resided for a time, was in «Tangut »; it is known mainly from Ra"sidu-

'd-Din's account who calls it )4;    Cayàn-nâwûr (BI, n, 496, 501; Y', III, 127 [where «Fanchân
Nâûr» is a corrupt reading], 132; iv, 162 [which I cannot trace]). Its location is still doubtful. It could not lie as far north as lat. 450 45' (with east long. 960) as was supposed by YULE (Y', III,

133) and given as a fact by HOWORTH (I, 176). Still less could it be lat. 480 10' and long. 990 45',

as given without comment by PENZER (Pe, xLlv), which would carry us north of the Altai, far to the north-western corner of Mongolia. I think that PENZER'S «480 10' » is a misprint for «45010' », and that the location is simply due to the fact that there is a eayân-nôr with approximately such coordinates on our maps. But this t ayân-nôr is out of the question here. Prince Ananda's palace must have been in Shàn-hsi. This makes it difficult, however, to account for the following passage in Rasidu-'d-Din as translated by QUATREMÉRE (Not. et Extr., XIII, I, 235; I cannot trace the original Persian text) : « When one descends below the Cayàn-nôr, one is near the city of QarâHwâjah (see ' Carachoço ') in the Uighur country, where they make good wine.» If I am right, the Cayân-nôr of « Tangut » must have been at a great distance from the region of «Carachoço» or Turfan. Unfortunately, I cannot find any certain mention of the Tangut Cayân-nôr in Chinese sources of the Mongol period (CHANG Hsing-lang, Chung-hsi chiao-t'ung ship-lino hui p' ien, Iv, 276, ignores it entirely; YS, 100, 2 a, is at least ambiguous). The place remained known, however, at the beginning of the Ming dynasty, and it seems to have been in the region of the Ordos, inside the great bend of the Yellow River, somewhat west of Yü-lin and north of the district of Huai-yuan (now Hêng-shan); cf. Ti-ming to tz'û-tien, 1086. In 1370, when the Ming armies were active in Shàn-hsi and Kan-su against the last upholders of the Mongol dynasty, a Chinese general, after Lan-chou had been conquered, entered Ning-hsia, and thence proceeded to Cayân-nôr, Tung-shêng

(i. e. Tobto, at the north-eastern angle of the great bend of the Huang-ho), Ta-t'ung and Hsüan-fu

(i. e. Hsüan-hua; see «Sindachiu »). This text of the Ming shih (126, 6 a; cf. also 124, 2 a) seems decisive in favour of the location adopted in the Ti-ming to tz'û-tien, and is supported, moreover, by a proposal made in the middle of the 15th cent. to remove to Cayân-nôr a neighbouring garrison of the Ordos.

While much remains to be elucidated in connection with the Cayân-nôr of Tangut, we can reach