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0354 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 354 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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watched over the golden treasures (altan kümürgä;   s û, ),, chin-mu ts'ang-k'u in the

Chinese version, 6, 6 b) of the Lord (äjän, = Chinghiz-khan), you too are a nation (ulus) with a great destiny e► äkä jiya'atu) » (SCHMIDT, 191).

When Mongka died in Ssû-ch'uan (1259), his son Asutai (BI, II, 335-336; cf. Oh, II, 333-334) «took the coffin of his father and brought it to his ordos (Pers. plur. ordohâ). In the four ordos of [Mongka], the mourning rites were performed, the first day at the ordo of Qutuqtai-i atun, the second day at the ordo of Qutluq-batun, the third day at the ordo of Cabui-batun (?) who had served [Mongka] during his campaign [in China], and the fourth day at the ordo of *Küitänibatun. Every day, the coffin was put on a table in one of the ordos ... Afterwards, they carried it to the place Bûrgân•gâidûn, which they call 3,91; .$ Yäkä-gôrûq, and buried it by the side of [those of] Chinghiz-khan and Tului-khan. »

In 1292, Qubilai's grandson Kamala was sent to the north, in command of the troops there and in charge of the « four great ordos » of Chinghiz-khan (YS, 108, 1 b; 115, 5 a). According to Rasidu-'d-Din (BI, II, 591-592), whose text contains several obscure and doubtful names, Kamala wielded considerable power over the regions of Qara-qorum, the Onon and the Kerulen, Kämkiciût, the Selenga, Qayaliq — as far as the boundaries of the Kirghiz — and the « great ' forbidden precinct ' (yoriiq-i buzurg) of Chinghiz-khan which is called Biargan-galdûn ». Haidar-Rath speaks of a temple erected by Karnak at the Bûrgân-gâldûn (QUATREMÉRE, Hist. des Mongols, 120).

Yäkä-qoruq, lit. « Great qoruq », is a slightly « turkicized » form of Mong. Yäkä-qoriq, «Great goriq ». Both Turkish god- and Mongolian god,- (< god-) mean «to enclose », « to guard », and « to forbid ». The technical sense of « tabooed precinct », « ground reserved for the prince », already occurs in Kâsyari for the Turk. goriy (BROCKELMANN, 160). We even find in the same work (ibid. 161) the nomen agentis goruyei, «keeper [of a goriy ] », which shows a secondary -u- < -E-vocalism in the second syllable. This secondary -u- vocalism, which also occurs in the QutaSyu bilig, is common in later Turkish dialects (cf. cay. qoruy and qoruq, Osm. qoru). From the Turkish, the word passed into Persian, mainly as ,ids yoruq (but with many other spellings,

,;319 , ~~~, tes, ~9,~   cf. VULLERS, II, 721), so that yoruq-i buzurg is the exact Persian
equivalent of the Mong. Yäkä-qoruq < Yäkä-gorïq. On the technical use of god), > yoruq, cf. the long note of QUATREMÉRE in Not. et Extr., XIV, I, 65-66. Hunting and the felling of trees were prohibited in god)/ places. This was what Qorïlartai-märgän resented (cf. supra) when his territory had been made goriy (in Mong. goriq; gorilaldu-; the whole story may have developed because of the phonetic analogy between qoriq and the name of Qorilartai-märgän, lord of the Qori-Tumat). In Kalmuk, xör'c (, qoriq) now means « prohibition », and the word for a qoriq area is the derivative xöriil (< qori'ul; cf. RAMSTEDT, Kalm. Wörterbuch, 193). The tomb of Chinghiz-khan, of Tului, and of part of Tului's descendants was the « Great Qoriq », but it was not the only one, nor was a qoriq always the site of a tomb. Plan Carpine had travelled past a bush which Ögödäi had consecrated to his own soul (dimisit unum virgultum crescere pro anima sua; Wy, 43). Nobody was allowed to cut any twig from it; Plan Carpine refrained from infringing the prohibition, although he badly needed a switch to whip up his horse. The bush was clearly a Twig bush. Chinghiz-khan's tomb was the « Great Qoriq », as distinguished from other qoriq. BEREZIN was mistaken when he construed Rasidu-'d-Din's statement as meaning that the tombs of