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0198 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 198 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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182   121. CARAMORAN

RR, 416, substituting « Caramania » for « Caramani », says it is the district of Qaraman in Asia Minor, and there is of course an identity of name. In modern geography, that part of Anatolia is usually called Caramania (in French, Caramanie). The name goes back to the Türkmän prince Qaraman or Qaraman, who, after the fall of the Seljukids, established there a Qaraman dynasty c. A. D. 1223; its first centre was at Lâranda, north of Armanak, and it was removed to Konieh about A. D. 1330. Abû-'I-Fidâ speaks of the « Qaraman mountains which are inhabited by the Türkmän tribes now ruled over by Qaraman's descendants », and elsewhere mentions in the same region « The Türkmän of the son of Qaraman (Ibn-Qaraman) » (REINAUD, Géogr. d'Aboulféda, II, I, 35; II, II, 133).

Now Z and R's « Caramani» can be understood in two different ways, either as a Latin plural of « Caramanus », when we should adopt « Caramans », just as we have in FA «Turquemans» instead of the Latin « Turcomani »; or « Caramani » may be conceived as an ethnical name *Qaramâni derived from Qaraman, in which case it should be retained. I would incline towards the second solution (as Polo does not speak, apparently, of the reigning family only, but of the whole of the tribe), if I could find *Qaramâni used ethnically elsewhere. But I find only Qaramän (cf. LS, 144, 145, 148), applied to the whole « emirate » and even to its capital. The epithet Qaramàni of men like Qaramâni Mehmed Pasha - 1481, so called because he was born in Caramania, can only be cited as a parallel with some qualification. In Osmanli Turkish, the ethnical name derived from Qaraman is naturally Qaramânli.

On Caramania, cf. EI, s. v. « Karamân-iii» and « Karaman-Oghlû », by J. H. KRAMERS; also BLOCHET, Moufazzal, 459, 738.


cakomoya, caramora G caracoron Fr, t

caramoram FA, FBt

caramoran F, FB, VB, Z, L,


caramoron L

caramota, carcamoran, catha-

metam LT

caromoram P

coromoran P5, S

carramoran Z

charameran TA', TA3

charamoira, charamoiram, cha- ramoram VA

charamoran, charchoron, gran- moian V

charomoran, choromoran VL chaumera TA3

Qara-mörän, «Black River », is well known as an ancient Mongol name of the Huang-ho or Yellow River of the Chinese. It is used by Odoric (Wy, 470, « Caramoram», a copyist's misreading of « Caramora» — Caramoran), by Marignolli (ibid. 533, « Caramora », also altered from «Caramora» = Caramoran), and often by Rasidu-'d-Din (ex. gr. Bl, u, 181, 488 : j,r53 Qara-mörän; also in his unpublished History of China). The three Western travellers use mörän, which must be the correct pronunciation, but mürän is also met with, although only later (the Chinese transcriptions, however, are always based on mürän). For Polo and Odoric, as well as for Rasid, Qara-mörän is the name of the river along the whole of its course, but later it