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0340 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 340 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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in T'ai-tsung shih-lu, 92, 10 a). made himself famous ().

(j   chiao-t'an) were built.
Mountains and streams surround


It is the place at which T'ai-tsu of the Yuan (= Chinghiz-khan) In former times a palace (kung-tien) and an altar for sacrifice Every year [Chinghiz-khan] spent the summer at this place. it; it extends over several tens of li. In front (91 ch'ien) [of

the buildings?; i. e. south of them], there are two lakes ({4 - hai-tzti), one of salt water, one of fresh water. Ten li to the south-west, there is a lake formed by the water of a spring (,

:   J ). In the mountains to the north-west there is the   ß San-kuan-k'ou («Three-Pass

Entrance »), by which [the place] communicates with the Yin-ma-ho and the :f IJ r7 T'u-la-ho (« Tilla River ») ; it is a place of incessant passage for the Barbarians (= the Mongols) ... The fourth day [of the sixth month] (June 20) was spent in front of the Shuang-ch'üan-hai ... On the fifth day (June 21), at noon, [the Emperor] left Shuang-ch'üan-hai and in the evening arrived at the north-western Ed ß San-hsia-k'ou (« Three-Defile Entrance », also marked on the map of the Yüan-shih lei-pien; it seems to be identical with the San-kuan-k'ou above), which is IX â

A K'ang-ha-li-kai (*Qangyârgai; more correctly transcribed K'ang-ha-ii-hai [ ] in T'ai-tsung ship-lu, 92,10 a, and in Ming ship, 7,1 a; probably identical with the Qanggargan [= Qangyargan] of the Secret History, § 193; it seems to be the « Bogbltuin-amà » of POZDNtEV, Mongoliya, u, 444); there was no water (there) ... On the sixth day (June 22), [the Emperor] halted at

Ts'ang-yai-hsia (« Blue-green Cliff Pass »; also marked on the map of the Yüan-shih lei-pien). On the seventh day (June 23), he halted at Chi-lan-hu-shih-wên (*Quian-gosi'un; cf. above) ... » There the Mongols were defeated in a pitched battle and were pursued by night as far as the Tills. On June 26, Yung-lo halted at ]i,k ffij Hui-liu-tien (« Back-flowing Steppe »; also marked on the map of the Yüan-shih lei-pien; it must have been close to the Tilla, near « Ulan-daba »). On June 27, Yung-lo, starting from Hui-liu-tien, retraced his steps, marched out of the San-hsia-

k'ou and in the evening encamped at Shuang-ch'üan-hai. On June 28, he was at Z al   P'ing-

shan-chên (« Garrison of the Flat Mountain »); on June 29, at    Ch'ing-yüan-hsia (« Pure

Spring Defile ») of the Yin-ma-ho; on June 30, at ;r J I [   P'ing-ch'uan-chou (« Flat Valley Island »)

of the Yin-ma-ho; on July 1, at It ,ft re Ch'ing-yang-wan (« Poplar bend ») of the Yin-ma-ho; on July 2, at San-fêng-shan of the Yin-ma-ho.

Here again, although most names still defy our attempts at identification, the region referred to in Chin Yu-tzû's detailed account is not a matter of doubt : it is the well-watered stretch of land between the Tula and the Kerulen. To the south-eastern angle of the southern bend of the Tula was Jö-modo (< Ja'un-modun, « Hundred Trees »), the place where K'ang-hsi defeated Galdan in 1696 (cf. the description in DU HALDE, IV, 413414), which seems to be the « Qara-tun of the Tula »,

in Chinese   C Hei-lin, « Black Forest », mentioned in Chinese texts (cf. Secret History, § 96,
104, 115, 164, 177, 264, and PoPOV, Mên-gu yu-mu czi, 348). It was one of Chinghiz-khan's favourite resorts, the one to which he returned in the spring of 1225 after his six years' campaign against the Mussulmans. But Chinghiz-khan also had a semi-sedentary camp at Sa'ari-kä'är in the vicinity of the Kerulen. There is here a difficulty, however. In the account of Ming-tsung's journey, Sa'ari-kä'är is the fifth stage after * Quian-gosi'un, while Yung-lo, returning from Hui-liutien, passes the San-hsia-k'ou, does not stop at * Quian-gosi'un and is back at Shuang-ch'üan-hai = Sa'ari-kä'är, all in one day. It looks as though it were the Sa-li, * Sa'ari, of Ming-tsung's