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0310 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 310 (Grayscale High Resolution Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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294   158. CINGHIS

« Saghod » of SCHMIDT, 189, 191, 195, are Ja'ut). But hu-lu is more perplexing. The same text

of the Chin shih from which T'u Chi cited a sentence says that hu-lu meant qt.,r tsung-shuai, « commander-in-chief » (the word is not recorded in our JOen vocabularies, where hu-lu, with the same Chinese characters, only renders a word meaning « a ring », « a [finger-Jring »; cf. GRUBE, Die Sprache and Schrift der Julien, No. 548). But the text adds that all the titles mentioned in the passage adduced, including those with hu-lu, were suppressed before 1149. Another difficulty is that Ja'ut, « hundreds », which is Mongolian, would be combined, according to T'u Chi's hypothesis, with a second element which would be Jaen. To make matters still more intricate, the Chin shih adds that, after the suppression of the other Jaen titles, one was retained for the officials who

were in charge of the people at the frontier, and that was t   t'u-li (on which cf. also Chin
shih, 57, 10 b), which bears a certain resemblance to the t'u-lu of ch'a-wu-t'u-lu and ëay-un törö.

Yet I think that T'u Chi was fundamentally right. To explain the juxtaposition of a Mongol Ja'ut and a Jucen hu-lu, we have only to suppose that the title hu-lu was inherited by the Chin

from the Liao who were Mongols; and the Chin shih says in so many words that the Chin, in those titles, followed the Liao. The suppression of most of them before 1149 may not have been

strictly enforced. The real Juden title for a « chief of a hundred »   pai-hu) was quite

different, to wit ait   mou-k'o (Chin shih, 57, 10 a) or t ÿZ mao-k'o (WANG Kuo-wei's edition

of the Mêng-Ta pei-lu, 10 a), *mükä or *mökä. The alternation of hu-lu, *guru, and hu-li, quri, is not without other examples. At the time of Chinghiz-khan's birth, the texts mention, alongside of the Tatar chief Tämüjin-ügä, another chief of the same tribe whom the Secret History (§ 59) calls Qori-buqa, but whose name is given as Quru-buqa in both the Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng lu (1 b) and Ragidu-'d-Din (Ber, ii, 86). In another case, Chinghiz-khan's relative Taicu is called Taicukiru (probably a misreading of *Taicu-quru) in the Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng lu (33 a), but Taicu-quri in the corresponding passage of Ragidu-'d-Din (Ber, Ii, 136); here, quri (or *quru) is clearly an epithet, probably a title. The Qulbari-quri of the Secret History, § 177, simply called Qulbari in § 152, provides another instance similar to that of Taicu and Taicu-quri.

This title quri can also be traced, I think, in the name of the prince of the Öngüt (see «Unc ») who took sides with Chinghiz-khan. This name is given as Aiaqus-tigin-quri in Ragidu-'d-Din (Ber, I, 115), Alaqug-digit-quri in the Secret History (§§ 182, 190, 202), Aiaqus-tiki-qori in the Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng lu (43 a), Alaqus in YS (1, 5 b), Ala'us-tigi-quri in Prince Georges's funerary tablet composed by Yen Fu c. 1305 (Mo, 235, and Chinese text opposite p. 236); hence the same form in

the NI f4   Po-lin-ssû inscription of 1355 and in YS, 118, 4 b (« Aiaqus-tägin-quli » in TP, 1914,
631, is a lapsus of mine, responsible for the same restoration in Mo, 235). Rasid says (Ber, i, 115) that Aiaqus is the name (nam), and that Tigin-quri is an epithet or agnomen (lagab) ; on the other hand he seldom uses Aiaqus alone (once in Ber, I, 116), and nearly always speaks of Aiaqus-tigin (Ber, I, 109, 115, 116; II, 2; HI, 111, 137). There can be no doubt that the name itself is Turkish; Turk. ala-qul, « motley bird », is a name of the magpie (Alaqug's grandsons Kun-buga and Ai-buqa bore Turkish names too; the « Aigus » of SAEKI, Tôhô gakuhô of Tokyo, No. 9 [1939], 82, is not receivable). The second element seems to be tegin > tigin, plur. tigit, the old princely title which the Turk of the Orkhon probably inherited in the 6th cent. from their Avar predecessors. It is a Turkish form too, since ti or di had already become in mediaeval Mongolian êi and fi respectively