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0131 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 131 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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89. CACANFU   115

impossible Sino-Mongolian combination where « Calatuy », identical for him with « Calachan », would represent Mong. qara, «black », and Ch. ch'êng, « city »; but the two names must be kept apart (for the second one, see « Calacian »). Now the Yüan shih (YS, I, 9 b) says that Chinghiz-

khan died at the « temporary palace » (hsing-kung T7 g = ordo) of t û    { Ha-lao-t'u, which can
be restored to *Qala'utu, perhaps *yala'utu, both not very far from « Calatuy » (it is Ha-lao-t'u which, through Ch'ien-lung's « reformed » spelling and a Russian intermediary, became the « camp of Caratouski » in Pa, 183, whence it has passed into CHAVANNES'S note in TP, 1905, 2-3). In spite of a wrong restoration, PAUTHIER had thus thought already of connecting « Calatuy » with Ha-lao-t'u, and I would have little hesitation in doing the same, if it were not for the doubts which have been raised as to the real location of Ha-lao-t'u, and, generally speaking, about the death of Chinghiz-khan either in Kan-su or in Upper Mongolia. This is a very intricate question, about which I have given some information in TP, 1934, 164-166. One point may be considered as certain : in spite of the tradition of the Ordos, the tomb of Chinghiz-Khan is somewhere in Upper Mongolia, and not in the great bend of the Huang-ho (cf. also, with caution, Ch, I, 197).


cacanfu F, FA, FB, L' caçanfu, capçanfu Z cacianfu F, Fr, t caianfu, cainfu L cancafu S

cancassu VL candanfu FBt

cangiafu, changiafu VB

cantasii G

catanfu FB

catenfu FAt

caucasu P

chaciafu TA3

chacafu, chancafu TA' chanchasu VA chanzanfu V

pazanfu (twice) R tacanfam, tancafam LT tacanfu FBr

This correct reading is actually found once in F, but the other form of F, « Cacianfu » (> Z « Cacanfu »), may be an early alteration of a still better « Cacainfu », and « Cacanfu » is perhaps

Cacainfu » > « Cacamfu » >.« Cacanfu »; for the name certainly covers iOr   Ho-chien-fu
(pronounced then Hô-kiän-fu), and chien (kiän) is rendered gain or quen by Polo (see « Gaindu », « Quenlinfu »). I have some recollection of reading the name in Rasidu-'d-Din, although I cannot trace it now. The transcription of Ho-chien-fu's ho by ca- is identical with that used in Mong. Qasi > Qagi = i7 )1E1 Ho-hsi (t16-si), a name for the « Tangut » country in Chinghiz-khan's time (see « Tangut ») ; see also « Cacu ». Moreover, the name of « Cacanfu » must have often been used in Mongol- and Persian-speaking circles.

The identification has been accepted by all except CHARIGNON, and is almost self-evident. Polo's starting point was Cho-chou (see « Giogiu »), south-west of Peking, where the two main roads followed by envoys branched off, one reaching Chêng-ting, where it again divided, to Hu-nan and Chiang-hsi, or to Shan-hsi, Shàn-hsi, etc., the other leading to Hang-chou and Fu-chien. We know that Polo passed through Chi-ning (on the Grand Canal, south-west of Yen-chou; see «Singiu matu »). From Cho chou to Chi-ning, the direct road passes through Ho-chien-fu