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0327 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 327 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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158. CINGHIS   311

an army coming down from Qara-boto along the Etsin-yol (but, perhaps on account of the traditional order « Kan and Su » which gave the name of the province of « Kan-su », Rasidu-'d-Din and the Cho-kêng-1u [22, 7 b] give the sequence « Kan-chou and Su-chou » like the YS). It is from Su-chou that Chinghiz-khan must have gone on to Kan-chou and Liang-chou. From Liang-chou, Chinghiz had to traverse the southern part of the sandy desert to reach the Huang-ho, which he crossed in order to attack Ling-chou. He must have crossed the Huang-ho again, this time not very far from Ning-hsia, so as to engage on the western side of the river the Hsi-Hsia troops sent to the rescue of Ling-chou (see « Calacian »). But, without then attempting to take the Hsi-Hsia capital (Ning-hsia), he retired a second time to the eastern bank, and took up his winter quarters south-east of Ling-chou. When he moved again, he left to his generals the conduct of the siege of Ning-hsia, and proceeded south-west to conquer the south-western part of Kan-su, north and south of the Huang-ho. He then moved again to the south-east, and « escaped the heat » at the Liu-p'an-shan, with the further intention, as it seems, to encroach on Sung territory to the south-east, so as to turn the position of the strongholds which had made a direct attack difficult to launch against the Chin in Shan-hsi.

Ca; àn's biography, drawn from some private documents in which the part he played was probably unduly extolled, goes on in the following terms : « [The army] advanced to the attack of Ling-chou. The [Hsi-]Hsia people came, ten myriads in number, to its rescue. The Emperor personally fought against them, and defeated them. He returned, and halted at the Liu-p'an[-shan]. The [Hsi-]Hsia chief (= sovereign) made a resolute defence at r]x fit Chung-hsing (= Ning-hsia). The Emperor sent Cayân to enter the city and warn [the inhabitants] of the weal or woe [which their conduct would bring them]. The people then decided to submit. At that moment, the Emperor died. The generals seized the [Hsi-]Hsia chief and killed him. Moreover, they decided to put every one of [the inhabitants of] Chung-hsing to the sword. Ga) an strongly remonstrated and prevented them [from doing so]. In haste he entered [the city], and having placated them, he gathered together what remained of the inhabitants. » In the notice devoted to A-shu-lu

?; YS, 123, 2 b), it is said that the capture of the Hsi-Hsia sovereign was made by *A)ui, and that the Hsi-Hsia sovereign was put to death by Ögödäi; both these statements seem to be unfounded.

The Liu-p'an-shan (« Liu-p'an Mountain ») in Kan-su is well known. It stands 20 li east of the hsien of Lung-tê, and 70 li south of the hsien of Ku-yuan, on the main road from Lan-chou to Hsi-an-fu. It is said that it was called Liu-p'an because of its six (liu) windings (p'an), to the abruptness and picturesqueness of which I can testify from personal knowledge. Another tra-

dition is that the road was in ancient times called ,g   ; Lo-p'an-tao, the « Road of successive
windings ». The place has always been of great strategic importance, and also a favourite hot weather resort. During the reign of Mongka, Qubilai, on his way back from Yün-nan, spent at the Liu-p'an-shan the fifth month of 1254 ( YS, 4, 2 a). In 1258, during the fourth month, Mongka himself stopped there when on his way to Ssû-ch'uan, and in the seventh month left there his impedimenta !I' . txû-chung, Mong. o) ruq (cf. Rasid's parallel texts in Bl, n, 325-326; in BLO. CHET'S note, txû-chung has been wrongly taken for the name of an individual). In 1296, military colonies consisting of 10,000 men in all were established from the Liu-p'an-shan to the Yellow