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0145 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 145 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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96. CAIGIU   129

the Indian Ocean, he gave him, among other letters, one dated July 13, 1289, and addressed «Caydono principi Tartarorum » (cf. GOLUBOVICH, Bibl. bio-bibl., II, 442). Paolino da Venezia (c. 1316-1334), in a chapter which seems otherwise to have been lifted from Hethum, has a sentence on an invasion of «Caydo » into Ghazan's dominions of which I can find no trace in Hethum (GOLUBovICH, Bibl. bio-bibi. II, 97). Between 1314 and 1328, Guillaume Adam writes that there were four empires of the Tartars, the fourth being the «medium imperium », «middle empire», called empire of «Doa or Caydo» (Hist. des Crois., Arm., II, 530); a bull of 1318 mentions «regna Doha seu Chaydo regum» (GOLUBOVICH, Bibl. bio-bibi. II, 572). The names had thus survived in the West after the deaths of both Qaidu (1301) and Dua (1306); an identical belated use of Qaidu's name occurs in Mufaz?al (BLOCHET, Moufazzal, 607, 630, 682). A sort of legend must have been woven around Qaidu already in his lifetime; the tales circulated about his daughter Qutulun seem to form the basis of the story of the queen Urduja in Ibn-Battûtah (see « Aigiaruc »).

96. CAIGIU (c. 148)

caichui, chaichui, pungino V

caicui, caigiu F

caigui Fr

cangiau, cangiu VB

cayçu Z

caygin P5, Lr

caygiu Ft, L caygui LT, P caymgui G

cayngui P5, R

chaigui, chaygui T .A'

chaingu, chayngui TA3

ciangui VL, S

cucuy FAt, FB

mangui VA

tucuy FB

Although the reading of F, supported by Z, is « Caigiu », I have little doubt that the real form used by Polo was either *Cagiu or *Cuagiu, and the name, as has been admitted by all commentators, is j.C. Kua-chou, « Gourd Island », the place where the Yang-tzû was crossed to

reach Chên-chiang on the southern bank. Although it was sometimes written j    Kua-chou
(already in T'ang times), it has never been a chou in the administrative sense of the word (both forms occur on the same page of YS, 8, 9 b). In 1276, the Imperial Commissioners left Chênchiang, crossed the Yang-tzû, reached Kua-chou and started for Yang-chou, exactly in the same manner as Polo did in the opposite direction. The region of Ts'ai-shih and Kua-chou had been

the scene of fierce fighting between the Chin and the Sung in 1161; cf.   Ej jjs, si   Ts'ai-shih
Kua-chou chi in Han hai, and the parallel work, Ts'ai-shih chan-shêng lu, described in Sseik'u ... , 52, 15. For the strategic importance of Kua-chou at the time of the campaign against the Sung, cf. YS, 8, 9 b, 10 b; 129, 4 b.

Kua-chou, formerly an island which gradually became an advanced point of the river bank, was a chên in the 11th cent., and was walled for the first time in 1168. It is now in ruins and