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0267 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 267 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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144. CIAGATAI   251

Carpine often uses chi- with the value of è"-). Hethum has « Chagaday » (with ch- = c"; Hist. des Crois., Arm., xi, 157, 163, 296). The name occurs several times in Fra Mauro's map — in the present case derived from sources other than Polo — always in the form « Cagatai » (not « Zagatai » as in Zu, 33, nor « Cagatai » as in HALLBERG, 92, 346). We find « Chacatay », and sometimes « Checatay » in Clavijo (ch- = c-; SREZNEVSKIY, 424; not « Zagatay » as in HALLBERG, 347; nor « Chagatay » as in LE STRANGE, Clavijo, 366) ; « Zekathey » (var. « Zekatay »; with German z- = is-) in Schiltberger (LANGMANTEL, 61, 127); « Zacatai » in the Libellus de notitia orbis (cf. A. KERN, in Arch. Fratr. Praed. VIII [1938], 96, 100). Juwaini, Rasidu-'d-Din, Abû'l-Ghâzi all spell the name Ste- Câyâtâi (with the usual double value of z as }- and e"-; the

form sue- with   in Bl, II, passim, is BLOCHET'S editing); Wassâf (Ha2, Pers. text, 20) gives
however P> Câyâtai, which is more satisfactory from an etymological point of view; the form Càyâtài may be the result of the Mongolian slurring of a second unaccented vowel. The Armenian form « Cayata » is somewhat ambiguous (cf. PATKANOV, Istoriya Mongolov, II, 13; BROSSET, Deux historiens arméniens, 115). Bar Hebraeus transcribes in Syriac « Sâgatâi » (BRUNS, Chronicon Syriacum, 439).

« Cayatai » is a purely Mongolian name. Ch'ien-lung's Commissioners ( Yüan shih yü

chieh, 1, 16 b) changed it to « Cayantai », which they explained as cayân, « white », with the adjectival suffix -tai, « having » (cf. also Bl, II, 153; the «*Cayantai buqa » which BLOCHET adduces from the same work, 17, 9 a, is valueless, being an absurd restoration of a name the first part of which has nothing to do with Cayatai or *Cayantai). Although the correction to *Cayantai is arbitrary and useless, I think that the derivation is correct : Cayâtai, also read Cayâdai, must be cayân + tai, in the same way as Ulâtai (see « Oulatai »), Ulâdai, Hulâtai or Hulâdai is formed with ula'an > ulân or hula'an > huldn, « red », and -tai. This type of derivation is no longer alive in Mongolian, and our Mongol dictionaries give « Cayadai », as KOWALEWSKI reads it, only as the name of Chinghiz-khan's second son.

« Cayâtai » and « Cayadai » are indistinguishable in Mongolian script, since the same letter

serves for t as for d. On the other hand, Mongolian -y- can represent both a real -y- or merely an intervocalic hiatus of the type *Ca'âdai or *[✓a'âtai. Curiously enough, the latter value, which is suggested by Plan Carpine's « Chiaaday », was also the one adopted by the transcribers of the Secret History, who always read « !✓a'adai » (many mentions of the name occur in § 242-280). In the same way, they read «Ca'alun» the feminine name formed with Mayan and the ancient feminine suffix -lun (§ 157). A still more contracted form is represented by

g   Ch'a-tai, *Câdai, in YS, 63, 15 b, if 4ayatai is meant as I believe him to be and if a

character has not been dropped between ch'a and tai. At any rate,   [rpJ   Ch'a-a-t'ai
(= Ca'àtai) occurs twice under A. D. 1228-1229 in YS, 31, 1 b, 2 b.

All other Chinese transcriptions are based on Cayatai and Cayadai. We find g Ch'a-ha-t'ai, l ayatai (in YS, 1, 7 a [s. a. 1213] ; 8 b [s. a. 1221] ; 107, 5 a; and in

Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng lu [WANG Kuo-wei ed. 50 b] ); 144 PA   Ch'a-ha-t'ai, Cayatai (in YS,

120, 2 a; 124, 6 b);    Ch'a-ha-tai, Cayadai (in YS, 2, 3 a [s. a. 1236]);   â

Ch'a-ha-tai, Cayadai (in YS, 68, 3 a; 69, 5 a; 72, 1 b; 74, 1 b);   p   Ch'a-ha-tai, Cayadai
(in YS, 95, 2 b, and in Hei-Ta shih-lio [ WANG Kuo-wei ed. 18 b]) ; and g pâ ÿ Ch'a-ha-tai,