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0251 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 251 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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131. CAXAN   235

was known in Central Asia and may have survived in some circles; towards the end of the T'ang dynasty, this was written Mukuri in Sanskrit, and Mug-iig in Tibetan (cf. BAGCHI, Deux lexiques sanskrit-chinois, revised edition [1929], I, 295). There is just a possibility that Rasid's second name for Corea might have had some connection with this mysterious name, which is also perhaps the origin of the obscure « Muc » used by Rubrouck (Wy, 235).

The name of Corea reappears in the West with the «Gori » of Giovanni da Empoli (1514). And, in spite of many controversies, I believe that the name of the « Gores », in Western texts of the 16th cent., has the same origin (cf. Ch. HAGUENAUER'S various papers, lastly in JA, 1935, 67115, and 1936, 392-395; cf. also TP, 1931, 157; 1932, 190). Fra Mauro's «Gori» (Zu, 38; HALLBERG, 231) would appear to be the same name, the knowledge of which should in such an event have reached Europe at least in the middle of the 15th cent.

  1. CAUYU

cairn VB, R   cayn FB, L, VL, S   chaim VB

caiu F, Fr, FA   cayu F, Ft, FA, P   chauin, pauin V

cauyu Z   chaillu, chailu (?) VA   chayn TA', TA3

caym, chaym LT

This is the excellent reading of Z, more correct than F's « Caiu », and it represents exactlyKao-yu, south of Pao-ying, as has been noticed by former editors. «Cauyu» is also given by Fra Mauro (this reading is omitted by ZURLA and HALLBERG).

The name of the hsien of Kao-yu goes back to Han times, and lasted until 1368. But the seat of the hsien became also the seat of a military area (chün) in 971, which continued until 1277, when the chün was changed to a lu and this in turn to a fu in 1284. In 1368, the Ming lowered the status of the fu to that of a chou, and the hsien was merged into the chou; this new status of Kao-yu was maintained until the fall of the Ch'ing (YS, 59, 11 a; Ta-Ch'ing i-t'ung chih, 66, map, 2 b-3 a).

Polo, who never mentions the chün or the lu, but often the fu, did not call it «Kao-yu-fu », although he wrote after 1284; this tends to show that the place continued to be generally known simply as Kao-yu.

  1. CAXAN

caxan Z chasa V

chasan L, L'   chasson L4

This is ÙL,;,lf Kagan, also written ÙL;,l~ Qâsân, south-east of Savah and Qum; cf. on it BARBIER DE MEYNARD, Diet. géogr., 434-435 and 474; LS, 209; Mi, 80, 133. Fra Mauro gives « Chascian » (not « Chascion » as in HALLBERG, 137) .