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0394 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 394 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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378   161. CIORCIA

« altered » means that it was Man-chu which correctly rendered Manju, and that, if chou was commonly substitued for chu, it was because chou, « island », lent itself better in Chinese to a geographical use (cf. I, I b, 2 a; as a matter of fact, the very name « Manju », unknown before the seventeenth century, has never been satisfactorily explained; cf. GIBERT. Dictionnaire, 589, 602603). I shall speak of the ancient Su-shên farther on; but it is self-evident that if there should be a connection between Su-shên and Chu-shên, the chronology would require a process of evolution just the opposite of that formulated by Ch'ien-lung (the text in ch. I, 3 a, is in this respect more logical than Ch'ien-lung's preface).

There can be no doubt that the name Chu-shên adduced by Ch'ien-lung in connection with Su-shên and said by the compilers of the Man-chou yuan-liu k'ao (I, 3 a) to be fundamentally identical with Chu-li-chên (Jurcen) is the Manchu Jusen, Juse, meaning « Manchu servants » and «family people» (cf. ZAKHAROV'S Dictionary, 1005; TERRIEN DE TJACOUPERIE, in JRAS, 1889, 438). GIBERT (Dictionnaire, 141), while admitting that Jusen was the designation not of the ruling class of the Manchus, but of an inferior class maintained in a state of bondage by the other, accepts the Chinese view which connects the name of the jusen with that of the Jurcen (cf. also Tz'û yüan, ch'ou 253, s. v. « Nü-chên »). The transcription Chu-hsien, *Jusen, given for the native name of the Jurcen in the late Jucen Vocabulary published by GRUBE, may be adduced as providing an intermediary form. Yet I retain some doubts as to the correctness of the equivalence. Since we have the Manchu mucen as corresponding to the *musen of GRUBE's Vocabulary and to muce of the Vocabulary acquired by AUROUSSEAU, we should expect, as the Manchu form corresponding to *Risen, not Jusen, but *Jucen. As to the Manchu Jusen itself, its historical use remains to be investigated, and I am not certain that it ever was, as Ch'ienlung's text would imply, an ethnical and not a class name. ZAKHAROV'S etymology from the Chinese 4- A chu-fen, « master », is not acceptable, but we may have to do with an independent Manchu word, unconnected with Jurcen. I am all the more in doubt about any such connection because the very form Jurcen may have survived in Manchu. _Tureen in Manchu means « opposition », « disobedience », from a root »tree- which has many derived forms. But ZAKHAROV (p. 1014) says that it is also the « name of a clan ». It is true that he says this with a question-mark. But it looks as though he had actually found the name as that of a clan, but felt some hesitation on account of the identity of that name with the word furcen, « disobedience ». If such be the case, the absolute identity of the clan-name Jurcen with the form which we have reconstructed from the various transcriptions for the native name of the Nü-chên would make it certain that it is this native name which has survived as a clan-name in Manchu, and the very doubtful connection proffered between the name of the Jurêen and the Manchu class-name Jusen should be definitely abandoned.

As to the date of the first occurrence of the name Nü-chên, we have seen (p. 376) that, according to the San-ch'ao pei-meng hui-pien, the Ch'i-tan Emperor A-pao-chi was afraid that the Nü-chên might create trouble. This is confirmed by the Liao shih (in which work the name always occurs as Nü-chih, as required by the taboo of 1131), where we read (1, 1 a-b) that in 903 A-pao-chi subdued the Nü-chih, and again, in 906, those of the Nü-chih who had not submitted before. But A-pao-chi died on September 18, 926, and it was only under his suc-