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0307 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 307 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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158. CINGHIS   291

and HOWORTH (I, 48) to c. 1165 in VLADIMIRCOV (p. 23). One point is clear : the years of the son's age are counted in Chinese fashion, that is to say, we have to add to the year of his birth not nine or thirteen, but eight or twelve, respectively. This is almost self-evident, but it is established beyond doubt by Rand (Ber, H, 89; HI, 102-103, 111), who, dating Chinghiz-khan's birth in a « pig » year (1155), makes him an orphan at the age of « thirteen » also in a « pig » year, consequently twelve years later (1167). Too many complete cycles divide the main periods of Chinghiz-khan's life. The Secret History, our earliest source, is free from such combinations and therefore the age of « nine » years (eight actual years) which it gives is more likely to be true. If we add eight to 1155, Yäsügäi must have died in 1163. But such an early date is difficult to reconcile with the subsequent history of Chinghiz-khan. I am tempted rather to start from 1167 for Chinghiz-khan's birth, and to suppose that Yäsügäi died in 1175. It is quite by accident that this date falls in with the one suggested by WOLFF, who started from entirely different premises, which are, moreover, warped with a miscalculation.

THE TITLE OF CA'UT-20ßI. - At a date which was in a « tiger » year (1194) according to Ran (Ber, II, 104; BARTHOLD, in EI, s. v. « Cingiz-k~k än »), but which is more likely to have been 1196 (cf. NAKA Michiyo, Chingisu-kan jitsuroku, 129; WANG Kuo-wei, Kuan-t'ang chi-lin, 14, 23 a; T'u Chi, 11, 14 a), Tämüjin joined with the sovereign of the Kerait, To'oril ( Turk. To) rul), in an action against the Tatars together with the armies of the Chin. As a reward, the Chin general

gave to To'oril the Chinese title of I wang   Turk. and Mong. Ong), from which To'oril was
henceforward known as « Ong-khan » (see « Uncan »), and to Tämü,in a title which has often been misread and, I think, misinterpreted. The problem of this title is fairly intricate, and must be studied in some detail.

GAUBIL (Hist. de Gentchiscan, 4) merely states that Tämü;in received « a high office in the army ». BINURIN (Istoriya pervykh eeterëkh khanov, 39), translating from the Supplement to the T'ung-chien kang-mu, says the title given to Tämü,in was « ta-u-tu-lu », meaning « commander-inchief against rebels ». The Yüan-shih lei-pien (I, 1 b-2 a), quoting from the Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng

lu, gives likewise   t ' Ch'a-wu-t'u-lu, adding that it is the equivalent of 4ß f   chao-
chi-shih. In Pi Yüan's Hsü tzû-chih t'ung-chien (chap. 156, s. a. 1202), the title is given as having been originally written ?4 j[ EJ . ch'a-wu-t'u-lu, changed by the Ch'ien-lung Commis-

sioners to '44   ch'a-kun-t'u-lu, with the Chinese equivalent 113 pf   chao-t'ao-shih. This
points to a text of the Shêng-wu ch'in-chêng lu which had ch'a-wu-t'u-lu, although all our manu-

scripts of the latter work only give   V{ - ch'a-wu-hu-lu, with a note saying that it was a

title equivalent to the 4 if   i-chi-shih of the Chin (WANG Kuo-wei ed., 13 a; but the ms. of

the ancient Shuo fu, ch. 55, published by the Commercial Press, which WANG Kuo-wei did not

know, gives as the Chinese equivalent chao-t'ao-shih [with a wrong reading   chin instead of

; . Chin] ; the Fu Tsêng-hsiang ms., which was also not known to WANG, has ff   ( i-chi

Chin shih, which is absurd; HUNG Chüng, I A, 28, and NAKA, Chingisu-kan jitsuroku, 132, say that ch'a-wu-hu-lu occurs in YS, but I cannot find it there. I am afraid that it was a slip of one author repeated by another). The curious fact is that, contrary to what will soon be seen to be the reading of the Secret History itself, the Ulan-Bator ms., in the passage