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0272 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 272 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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256   146. CIANDU


chiantai VA ciadu FA ciandu F, FA, FB, L, LTr, P cyandai G

cyandu LT, P giandu TA 1, TA 3 iadun V

siandu FAt xandu Z; R ziandu VB, VL

Transcribes J 5 Shang-tu. I do not find the name in Rasidu-'d-Din, who uses only Keminfu. Odoric writes « Sandu », var. « Zandu » (Y1, II, 227; Wy, 475). The « Ciandu » of F is not a good transcription, as ci- in Polo's transcriptions generally represents e" and not s; but the case of « Cielstan » (q. v.) is more or less similar.

The name of K'ai-p'ing-fu was changed to Shang-tu on June 16, 1263 (see « Chemeinfu »). A mention of Shang-tu occurs earlier in YS, 5, 1 b, under the date March 5, 1262, but the whole sentence is full of anachronisms in the names (some of them, though not this one, have been noticed in the k'ao-chêng of ch. 5, and by WANG Hui-tsu 2, 1, 5 a), and it is clear that the nomenclature has been modernized. In the same way, the lu of Shang-tu mentioned incidentally in 1262 in YS, 58, 3 b, is wrong; the pên-chi, in the corresponding passage (YS, 5, 5 a, 12th moon), has correctly K'ai-p'ing-fu (cf. WANG Hui-tsu 2, 8, 2 a).

Shang-tu, «Upper Court », «Upper Capital», has been said by PAUTHIER (Pa, 21, 223-224, 265) to mean «Main Imperial Residence», in opposition to 13 $ Chung-tu (see « Cambaluc » and «Taidu ») which he renders «Secondary Imperial Residence », and CHARIGNON (Ch, I, 261) likewise translates Shang-tu « Main Capital ». It would take too long to examine in detail the use of the names Shang-tu and its synonymous f~ Q, Shang-ching, of Chung-tu and Chung-ching, and even

of   Hsia-tu, « Lower Capital », from the time of the Chou and principally from that of the
T'ang dynasty. Let it suffice to remark that the Liao and the Chin each had five capitals, but the Shang-ching, the northernmost capital, was not the one where the dynasty actually ruled (cf. CHAVANNES, in JA, 1897, I, 377-378); the Chin ruled in Peking, to which they had given in 1153 the name of Chung-tu, «Middle Capital ». The case of Shang-tu is analogous. It never was the real capital. But owing to the fact that it was Qubilai's summer residence, and although Peking had been since 1260 and was to remain the real capital, K'ai-p'ing-fu was given in 1263 the honorary name of Shang-tu, « Upper Capital », perhaps partly because it lay to the north of Peking, as is admitted by POZDNEV (II, 300).

The ruins of K'ai-p'ing-fu, alias Shang-tu, still exist north of the Luan river, in the region generally called by Europeans Dolôn-nôr (the «Seven Lakes »); but the locality called to-day Dolôn-nôr is actually south of the river. According to the Ta-Ch'ing i-t'ung chick (409, II, 1 b; Bl, II, App. 42; YANAI, 631-632), the real name, two centuries ago, was T,R P gt lit, Pa-ha-huêrh-hu, Baya-burbu, and the popular local name was Ja'u-naiman-sümä, « Hundred and eight temples ». This last name is well known in the West thanks to D'ANVILLE's maps. As to Bayaburbu, it may mean «Small enclosure », as is said in YANAI, 632, but the vocalization in u instead of o is surprising; I have not found the name elsewhere.