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0447 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 447 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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183. COTTON   431

more extended use is in agreement with the use of tiad in Sanskrit texts, but it is with reference to special kinds of cotton goods that tou-lo-mien has long survived in Chinese lay texts of the Southern Sung, Yüan, and Ming dynasties (cf. HR, 219; TP, 1933, 429-430; 1934, 306). Chao Ju-kua makes of tou-lo-mien the name of the best quality of cotton goods (HR, 218); at the beginning of the 15th cent., it was the designation of cotton velvets (Ar. malimal). WANG Kuo-wei's attempt to connect with tou-lo-mien the t'u-lu-ma of Ch'iu Ch'ang-ch'un's Hsi-yu chi (cf. his edition, t, 24-25) is decidedly a failure (cf. infra, p. 514). Tou-lo-mien is given as a product of Burma in Ming i-t'ung chih, 87, 35 a (it is altered into tou-lo-[ 1, ]chin in the corresponding passage of the T'u-shu pien, 85, 51 a) and of Bengal in WANG Ch'i's Hsi). IVên-hsien t'ung-k'ao (33, 14 a). The Ming shih

(324, 10 a) mentions in Sumatra 92   tou-lo-pei, « tou-lo blankets », for which I doubt whether
GROENEVELDT'S « blankets of woollen cloth » (Essays relating to Indo-China, 2nd series, t, 193) is a correct rendering. These are, moreover, certainly the same as tou-lo-chin pei mentioned among the objects of tribute offered by the states of Sumatra in Hsü Wên-hsien t'ung-k'ao (33, 12 a, 13 a); here again I suspect that tou-lo-chin pei is a corrupt reading of tou-lo-mien pei.

The tou-lo-mien of the Ming dynasty must have been a strong fabric, since the author of the Tung-hsi yang k'ao, after mentioning the tou-lo-mien of Siam (2, 13 b), adds : « tit 14 f Cifü Jui-fu says : ' As to the tou-lo-mien, neither sword nor arrow can pierce it '. » Jui-fu is the tzû of both 'VPr; Ch'ü Chih of the Yüan, and VP 3r F . CRT Ch'iu-ssû of the Ming; the one here meant is almost certainly CR'Ü Ch'iu-ssù (c. 1550-1620; cf. Ming shih, 288, 3 a).

WATTERS (Essays on the Chinese language, 439) says that tou-lo was used as a « general name » when European velvet, plush, and woollen goods were first introduced into China, and that

we thus find «   Utz tou-lo-ni (now to-to-ni) and 92   tou-lo-jung, for woolens and velvets
respectively ». I doubt the existence of both tou-lo-ni and tou-lo-jung, or at least I can find no authority for these forms. But it is true that a kind of woollen velvet imported into Canton in

European vessels is mentioned in the dictionary Z   j Chêng tzû t'ung, first published in 1670-
1672 [cf. COURANT, Catalogue, Nos. 4464-4512; I do not know why WATTERS says (Essays on the

Chinese language, 87) that it was first published in 1705], as ÿ   to-lo jung (s. v.   t'a;
cf. also K'ang-hsi tzic-tien, s. v. lit t'a). On the other hand, broadcloth has been known in China, in modern times, as I~ P UPS to-to-ni, the origin of which is obscure, and there is a still more obscure TN * i$ P q « to-lo-ma of Kuang-tung », said to be a fabric of hemp or ramie manufactured in Kuang-tung (cf. KIUNG and COURTOIS, Quelques mots sur la politesse chinoise [Var. Sin., No. 25], 33 and 109, where the transcription « tou-lou-ma » is not correct). I do not know the origin of ma in to-to-ma. As to the ni of to-to-ni, it enters into a number of names of European cotton and woollen textiles, such as J UPS to-ni, « great ni », another name for « broadcloth »;

J. Ufa hsiao-ni, «small ni », «cassimeres, flannels »; (, px O-ni, « Russian ni », « Russian cloth », etc. The authors of the Tz'û-yüan (s. v. Ups) say that ni was originally written J ni, and cite a poem of Huang T'ing-chien (1045-1105) in which already this P ni occurs. But the chronological gap is a large one, and moreover Huang T'ing-chien does not speak of a cotton stuff, but of camel-hair; and the identification cannot be accepted unless intermediary and more decisive examples are discovered. Pending this, one might suppose that UPS, ni in « great ni », « small ni », etc., is nothing more than an aphoretical abbreviation of to-lo-ni itself. As to to-to-ni, HIRTH has already called attention (JNCB,