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0210 Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1
Notes on Marco Polo : vol.1 / Page 210 (Color Image)

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doi: 10.20676/00000246
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into   «Otguhanâ (read ~ÇA Onguca?; Hist. Dynast., text, 508; transi., 332). We may

suppose that this one was really a Nägüdär, not a Tägüdär, and he at least is said to have invaded the borders of India; nevertheless the possibility of a confusion remains, since the Cayatai prince Täküdär was also involved in the intrigues of the princes in 1262, and is said to have then saved his life by submitting to Hüiägü (BROSSET, Hist. de la Géorgie, I, Add., 455; PATKANOV, Ist. Mongol. Magakii, 31-32). Nägüdär or Tägüdär, we should want more precise information about him to enable us to determine whether he can still be the same as the emir Nägüdär (or Tägüdär?) who, according to the chronicle of Herat, had settled in Herat with 300 adventurers from 'Iraq and created trouble in 1298 ( Y, I, 103), or the Nägüdär-bahadur (or Tägüdär-bahadur?) who, in the next year, is named among the emirs of the predatory Qutiuysah (Hal, u, 104).

If the emir of 1262 is really a Nägüdär, he is likely to be the eponym of the Nägüdäri bands; these freebooters did much harm in Eastern Persia at the end of the 13th cent. and in

the beginning of the 14th. To the references already given by QUATREMERE (Not. et Extr. )(Iv, 284) and by YULE ( Y, I, 102-104), we may add a curious text of MufaNai on one of their campaigns against the kingdom of Delhi (BLOCHET, Moufazzal, 556-557). Wa§säf says that the Nägüdäri are a people of the Seistan; Rand speaks of their army (la. kar). According to a text of Midland, Nägüdäri had been transferred to 'Iraq by Ghazan, with summer and winter encampments, which sounds very much like a repetition of what Aryun had done with the Qaraunas some fifteen years earlier; these Nägüdäri, in Midland's account, form one of several chifiarchies (hazâra). The texts generally agree to call these freebooters « Nägüdäri », although they occasionally give « Tägüdäri ». HAMMER (Hai, I, 284, 309) has blamed D'OHSSON for confounding the Qaraunas of Horàsän with the Nägüdäri of Seistan; but as we have seen, an emir

Nägüdär and his men had settled at Herat in Horäsàn, in the very region where we hear most of

the Qaraunas. The Mongol Amaji-Nägüdäri of the chronicle of Herat (JA, 1861, I, 456; Oh, iv, 184) may be the same as the « Aladu » of Hai, I, 13, « Alaju » of Oh, iv, 46, who had at one time Qaraunas under his command, and anyhow that Nigudarian was in the region of Herat, not in Seistan. Probably no strict distinction was made between them, and it may be that Qaraunas was the name used regularly by the Mongols, while Nägüdäri was practically its later (?) Persian equivalent. Polo's only mistake was then, owing to the phonetic resemblance, to associate unduly the Nägüdäri, alias the Qaraunas, with the Cayatai prince Täküdär, as the Persians did themselves later, on account of graphic analogy. The Qaraunas, alias Nägüdäri, of Horâsàn and

Seistan seem at the same time to have been the ancestors of the Nägüdäri   Nägdäri whom we
find in Bàbur's time in the region of Kabul; some of them, and also some of the Hazâra (cf. Hobson-Jobson2, s. v. « Huzära »), spoke Mongolian according to BA-bur (transi. A. BEVERIDGE, 207) ; the Hazära, i. e. Chiliarchies, owe evidently their name to the former organization of the Mongol army (it is surprising that no such use of this Persian word should be mentioned by VULLERS), and they still speak an archaic Mongolian dialect, although they are becoming more and more iranized (cf. RAMSTEDT, Mogholica). Although A. BEVERIDGE, in the translation of the Memoirs of Bâbur, transcribes the name of the Nägüdäri by « Nikdiri » as well as by « Nikdiri » (pp. 196, 200, 207), there is no -à- in any ms. after the d; all the mss. give 5,.1 Ngdri, i. e.